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Joan of Arc

(1412—1431)

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Armagnacs and Burgundians

Armagnacs and Burgundians  

From 1407 to 1435 the French and Burgundian courts were divided by a quarrel between the dukes of Burgundy (John the Fearless and, from 1419, Philip the Good) and the ...
battle of Patay

battle of Patay  

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1429.After Joan of Arc had relieved Orléans, the English fell back to bridgeheads on the Loire at Meung, Jargeau, and Beaugency. The first two were soon lost, and in attempting to relieve the third, ...
Bourgeois de Paris

Bourgeois de Paris  

The ‘journal’ of the ‘bourgeois’, an incomplete eyewitness account of what occurred in Paris between 1405 and 1449. The author (possibly Jean Chuffart) was a doctor in theology, probably canon ...
Callistus III

Callistus III  

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Religion
(1378–1458), Pope from 1455. Originally a supporter of Benedict XIII, he induced his successor Clement VIII (antipope, 1423–9) to submit to Martin V. The main efforts of his Papacy were directed to ...
Charles Péguy

Charles Péguy  

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Literature
(1873–1914)French poet and essayist. A socialist who gradually became a Catholic, Péguy began by writing for the Revue socialiste, but he is best known for his later religious poetry ...
Charles VII

Charles VII  

(1403–61)King of France (1422–61). During his youth France was badly ruled by his father Charles the Mad and much territory was lost. Internal quarrels and war with England dominated his reign. At ...
Chinon

Chinon  

In Touraine; renowned for its castle and, as the residence of Charles VII in 1428–9, the location of the convening of the Estates General by the king and of Joan of Arc’s petition to join the king’s ...
Christine de Pisan

Christine de Pisan  

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Literature
(c.1364–c.1431)French poet and scholar, born in Venice, and considered to be the first woman of letters in France. Author of courtly ballades and rondeaux, she is best known for ...
Dunois, Jean, Count of

Dunois, Jean, Count of  

(1402–1468), French commander.The illegitimate son of Louis, Duke of Orléans, Jean was born in November 1402 and raised in his father’s household. After the death of his father in ...
Edward Lucie-Smith

Edward Lucie-Smith  

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Literature
(1933– )Poet and art critic, born in Jamaica. A Tropical Childhood and Other Poems appeared in 1961, and in the early 1960s Lucie‐Smith was associated with the Group, but since ...
France

France  

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History
One of Europe's most centralized states, with a distinctive and influential cultureFrance has the largest territory in Western Europe. Around two-thirds is lowlands, chiefly to the north and west, ...
George Sand

George Sand  

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Literature
(1804–76)Pseudonym of Aurore Dupin, baronne Dudevant, French novelist. After separating from her husband, she went to Paris in 1831 to begin an independent life as a writer. Her fame ...
Gilles de Rais

Gilles de Rais  

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Literature
(c.1404–1440),Soldier and paedophile sadist who fought at the side of Joan of Arc at Orléans in 1429, and was appointed maréchal de France. He retired to his castle in ...
Guillaume d' Estouteville

Guillaume d' Estouteville  

(1403–1483)Born in Normandy to a Noble family related to the royal house of France, he was created cardinal by Eugenius IV in 1439, and from then on spent practically ...
Henry Beaufort

Henry Beaufort  

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Religion
(c. 1375–1447),Cardinal and Bp. of Lincoln and Winchester. He was born at Beaufort, Anjou, the son of John of Gaunt and Catherine Swynford. His parents having been married in ...
Henry VI

Henry VI  

(1421–71),king of England (1422–61 and 1470–1). Henry VI was the youngest king of England ever to ascend the throne; the only one ever to be crowned king of France; and arguably the worst, who ...
Henry VI

Henry VI  

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Literature
A: William Shakespeare Pf: c.1589–92, London Pb: 1623 (Parts 2 and 3 as ‘bad’ 1st quartos, 1594–5) G: Hist. dramas, each in 5 acts; blank verse, some prose in Part 2 S: England and France, 1422–71 C: ...
Hilaire Belloc

Hilaire Belloc  

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Literature
(1870–1953)British author of half-French parentage.Born in St Cloud, France, Belloc was brought by his widowed mother to England in 1872. He was educated at Cardinal Newman's Oratory School near ...
Hundred Years War

Hundred Years War  

This potentially misleading term denotes the series of conflicts between England and France between 1337 and 1453. Edward III's claim to the French throne, via his mother Isabella of France ...
Jean Anouilh

Jean Anouilh  

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Literature
(b Bordeaux, 23 Jun. 1910; d Lausanne, 3 Oct. 1987)French playwright. His 1932 ballet for actors Le Bal des voleurs was re-choreographed by Massine (Nervi, 1960) and revived for Royal Ballet (London, ...

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