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Ājīvaka

Ājīvaka  

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Religion
(Skt., ‘one who practises a way’ (?).A heterodox sect founded by Makkhali Gosala, a contemporary and opponent of the Buddha. According to Buddhist sources, Makkhali was a determinist who ...
Akṣobhya

Akṣobhya  

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Religion
(Skt.). The ‘Immovable One’, one of the five Jinas.normally depicted iconographically as a blue, or sometimes white, saṃbhoga-kāya Buddha associated with the eastern quarter. He is also viewed as the ...
Ambikā

Ambikā  

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Religion
1 Another name for the goddess Durgā. Iconographically, the name may be reserved for Durgā when she is seated on, or attended by, a lion or tiger. The name is also applied to Umā (Parvatī), and to ...
Amitabha

Amitabha  

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Religion
(Skt.). The Buddha ‘Infinite Light’, also known as Amitāyus (Infinite Life). One of the five Jinas.he is normally depicted iconographically as a red saṃbhoga-kāya Buddha associated with the western ...
Amoghasiddhi

Amoghasiddhi  

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Religion
(Skt., ‘the unerring achiever of the goal’).One of the five transcendent Buddhas in Mahāyāna and Zen Buddhism. His mudra is that of fearlessness, and his emblem is vajra, the absolute and ...
Buddha

Buddha  

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A title given to the founder of Buddhism, Siddartha Gautama (c. 563–c. 460 bc). Born an Indian prince in what is now Nepal, he renounced wealth and family to become an ascetic, and after achieving ...
Buddhakula

Buddhakula  

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Religion
(Skt., ‘buddha-family’).The five basic qualities found in the Mahāyāna buddhas. The five qualities are different aspects of prajña (wisdom).
cakravartin

cakravartin  

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Religion
The ideal king, who is divinely ordained to restore temporal dharma by ruling over the entire earth (cakravartikṣetra). The concept seems to have originated in Mauryan times, and is related in the ...
dhyāni-Buddhas

dhyāni-Buddhas  

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Religion
(Skt.). ‘Meditation Buddhas’, in the sense of Buddhas seen in meditation or used as a subject of meditation practice. It is a generally obsolete term invented and formerly used by Western scholars to ...
Jainism

Jainism  

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Religion
A non-theistic religion founded in India in the 6th century bc by the Jina Vardhamana Mahavira as a reaction against the teachings of orthodox Brahmanism, and still practised there. The Jain religion ...
Mahāvīra

Mahāvīra  

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1 An honorific applied to a spiritual ‘hero’.2 (Vardhamāna) (5th century bce) The name by which the twenty-fourth Jaina teacher, or Jina, is best known.
pañca-jñāna

pañca-jñāna  

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(Skt., five awarenesses).The five facets of perfect enlightenment (bodhi), especially according to Yogācāra-based Mahāyāna doctrines, ultimately derived from the Mahāyāna Buddhabhūmi Sūtra. The ‘five ...
Parsva

Parsva  

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Twenty-third tīrthaṅkara in Jainism. Accepted now as a historical figure, born in the 9th cent bce (c.250 years before Mahāvīra), tradition claims that he became a wandering ascetic for seventy ...
Ratnasaṃbhava

Ratnasaṃbhava  

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Religion
(Skt., ‘jewel-born one’).One of the five transcendent Buddhas. He is linked to the earthly Buddha Kaśyapa and to the bodhisattva Ratnapani. He is usually represented with the mudra (hand gesture) of ...
Śāsanadevatā

Śāsanadevatā  

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Religion
Jain spiritual beings who serve the jinas but who also respond as gods, at a popular level, to the devotion and prayers of humans. Frequently they are Hindu deities, and ...
śrīvatsa

śrīvatsa  

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Religion
A distinguishing and auspicious curl, sometimes shown as a cruciform flower, found on depictions of Viṣṇu and Kṛṣṇa, where it is placed on the chest of the deity. It is also part of the iconography ...
swastika

swastika  

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Religion
An ancient symbol in the form of an equal-armed cross with each arm continued at a right angle, used (in clockwise form) as the emblem of the German Nazi party. The word is recorded in English from ...
Tathāgata

Tathāgata  

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(Skt.; Pāli).A title or epithet of the Buddha. The term can mean either ‘one who has thus come’ or ‘one who has thus gone’. The Buddha used the term to refer to himself after he had attained ...
Tīrthaṅkara

Tīrthaṅkara  

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(Skt., ‘builders of the ford’).In Jainism, the title given to the twenty-four omniscient spiritual teachers who have displayed the way of salvation across the ocean of suffering and existence ...
Vairocana

Vairocana  

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Religion
(Skt.). ‘Illuminator’, one of the five Jinas. Normally depicted iconographically as a white saṃbhoga-kāya Buddha associated with the centre or sometimes the eastern quarter. He is also viewed as the ...

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