You are looking at 1-20 of 23 entries

  • Type: Overview Page x
clear all

View:

Aḥmad al-Tijānī

Aḥmad al-Tijānī  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1737–1815).Founder of the African Sūfī order, the Tijāniya. He was born in Algeria, and early in life joined several Sūfī orders before withdrawing for five years to a remote ...
al-Qaeda

al-Qaeda  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A network of Islamic fundamentalist groups, founded in 1988 and associated with the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. The name comes from Arabic, meaning literally ‘the base’.
battles of Tarain

battles of Tarain  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1191–2),also known as the battles of Taraori, a series of engagements, the last of which resulted in a decisive Muslim victory which opened all of northern India to Muslim ...
caliph

caliph  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. The caliph ruled in Baghdad until 1258 and then in Egypt until the Ottoman conquest of 1517; the title was then held ...
Dar al-Harb

Dar al-Harb  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Territory of war. Denotes the territories bordering on dar al-Islam (territory of Islam), whose leaders are called upon to convert to Islam. Refers to territory that does not have a treaty of ...
Harb

Harb  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Warfare not sanctioned by Islamic law.See also Dar al-Harb; Jihad; Terrorism
Holy war

Holy war  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Categorization of warfare in several religions (e.g. jihād, crusades), the war envisaged in the book of Deuteronomy. It is distinct from the just war, though they may overlap.
Ibn Tumart

Ibn Tumart  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1077–1130 (ah 470–524).A Muslim reformer in Morocco who was known as al-Mahdī of the Almohads. He grew up under the Almoravids who followed the Mālikite understanding of fiqh, in ...
Islam

Islam  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.Founded in the Arabian peninsula in the 7th century ad, Islam is now the professed ...
just war

just war  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An armed conflict in which one side enjoys the sanction of moral, religious, and legal tradition with respect to the initiation of the conflict, its conduct, and the objectives sought.[...]
Mahdi

Mahdi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Divinely guided one. An eschatological figure who Muslims believe will usher in an era of justice and true belief just prior to the end of time; an honorific applied to Muhammad and the first four ...
Mourides

Mourides  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(Arab., murīd, ‘aspirant’ or ‘disciple’).An innovative Muslim brotherhood in Senegal. It derives from Amadu Bamba (c.1850–1927), a saintly, scholarly marabout within the Sūfī and Qadariy(y)a ...
Muhammad Abd al-Salam Faraj

Muhammad Abd al-Salam Faraj  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1976)Ideologue and head of Islamic Jihad in Egypt. Claimed that Muslims must engage in armed revolt against the Egyptian government because it has replaced adherence to Islamic law alone with ...
Murtadd

Murtadd  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Apostate; one who has renounced her or his religion. According to classical Islamic law, a murtadd is subject to the death penalty or banishment. Legal opinions vary regarding the status of an ...
Osama Bin Laden

Osama Bin Laden  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1957–2011)Leader and founder of the al-Qaeda terrorist network. Born in Saudi Arabia, he inherited a fortune from his father's construction business, which he has used to further his militant ...
Radicalism

Radicalism  

Seeks a fundamental change in political structures through a programme of far-reaching but constitutional reform. Its features include some or all of individualism, democracy, minimal government, a ...
ribāt

ribāt  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Fort or stronghold. Initially founded by Muslims in non-Muslim areas, simultaneously fulfilling defensive and missionary purposes. Over time, their character changed and they became centers of Sufi ...
Saladin

Saladin  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1137–93)Sultan of Egypt and Syria (1174–93). He invaded the Holy Land and reconquered Jerusalem from the Christians (1187), and, for a period, resisted the Third Crusade, the leaders of which ...
Shamyl

Shamyl  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1796–1871),the leader of Islamic resistance to Russian penetration of Dagestan in the eastern Caucasus in the mid-19th century. Of Avar tribal origin, his traditional Islamic education and military ...
Somalia

Somalia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Sǝˈmälēǝ; sōˈmälyǝa country in the Horn of Africa; capital, Mogadishu. Civil war broke out in Somalia in 1988 and led to the overthrow of the government in 1991; the ...

View: