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Aḥmad al-Tijānī

Aḥmad al-Tijānī  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1737–1815).Founder of the African Sūfī order, the Tijāniya. He was born in Algeria, and early in life joined several Sūfī orders before withdrawing for five years to a remote ...
al-Qaeda

al-Qaeda  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A network of Islamic fundamentalist groups, founded in 1988 and associated with the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. The name comes from Arabic, meaning literally ‘the base’.
battles of Tarain

battles of Tarain  

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Overview Page
(1191–2),also known as the battles of Taraori, a series of engagements, the last of which resulted in a decisive Muslim victory which opened all of northern India to Muslim ...
caliph

caliph  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. The caliph ruled in Baghdad until 1258 and then in Egypt until the Ottoman conquest of 1517; the title was then held ...
Dar al-Harb

Dar al-Harb  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Territory of war. Denotes the territories bordering on dar al-Islam (territory of Islam), whose leaders are called upon to convert to Islam. Refers to territory that does not have a treaty of ...
Harb

Harb  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Warfare not sanctioned by Islamic law.See also Dar al-Harb; Jihad; Terrorism
Holy war

Holy war  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Categorization of warfare in several religions (e.g. jihād, crusades), the war envisaged in the book of Deuteronomy. It is distinct from the just war, though they may overlap.
Ibn Tumart

Ibn Tumart  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(1077–1130 (ah 470–524).A Muslim reformer in Morocco who was known as al-Mahdī of the Almohads. He grew up under the Almoravids who followed the Mālikite understanding of fiqh, in ...
Islam

Islam  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.Founded in the Arabian peninsula in the 7th century ad, Islam is now the professed ...
Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
575 words

Originally the doctrine of struggle against unbelievers for the expansion and protection of the Muslim community, jihad is closely linked

Jihad

Jihad   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
181 words

From the Arabic root meaning “to strive,” “to exert,” “to fight”; exact meaning depends on context. May express a struggle

Jihād

Jihād   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
97 words

(Arab., jahada, ‘he made an effort’).

More fully, jihād fī sabīl Allāh, ‘striving in the cause of God’.

Jihād

Jihād   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,389 words

Connoting an endeavor toward a praiseworthy aim, the word jihād bears many shades of meaning in the Islamic context. It

jihad

jihad   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

(Arabic: jihād, ‘striving, exerting oneself’).

Some classical Islamic writers distinguished between ‘the greater jihad’, a spiritual struggle against the

jihad

jihad   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
47 words

Religious obligation imposed upon Muslims through the Koran to spread Islam and protect its followers by waging war on non-believers.

Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

Michael Gilsenan

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
603 words

Originally conceived of as the doctrine of struggle against unbelievers for the expansion and protection of the Muslim community, jihad

jihād

jihād   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
665 words

The common translation “holy war” does not do justice to the meaning and scope of this concept in the world

jihad

jihad   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

a holy war undertaken by Muslims against unbelievers. The name comes from Arabic jihād, literally ‘effort’, expressing, in Muslim thought, struggle on behalf of God and Islam....

Jihad, al-

Jihad, al-   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
114 words

Jamaat al-Jihad or Islamic Jihad Community. Egyptian Islamic group that assassinated President Anwar Sadat in 1981. Established in the

just war

just war  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An armed conflict in which one side enjoys the sanction of moral, religious, and legal tradition with respect to the initiation of the conflict, its conduct, and the objectives sought.[...]

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