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Thomas Jefferson

(1743—1826) revolutionary politician and president of the United States of America

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Aaron Burr

Aaron Burr  

(1756–1836)US Democratic Republican statesman. After losing the presidential election to Jefferson in 1800, Burr was elected Vice-President. He was defeated in the contest for the governorship of New ...
Adams, John, On African Americans

Adams, John, On African Americans  

John Adams was born in Massachusetts in 1735 and grew up in relatively humble circumstances. After graduating from Harvard, he passed the bar and began his legal career. Adams's law ...
Albert Gallatin

Albert Gallatin  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1761–1849),born in Switzerland, emigrated to America at the age of 19 and became a frontier political leader, after 1797 being the recognized spokesman for the Republican minority, whose criticism ...
Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton  

(c. 1757–1804)US Federalist politician. He served under George Washington as First Secretary of the Treasury (1789–95) and established the US central banking system. Hamilton was a prime mover behind ...
Alexander von Humboldt

Alexander von Humboldt  

(b. Berlin, 14 September 1769; d. Berlin, 6 May 1859)German naturalist and explorer who made major contributions to various sciences, including geology, geomagnetism, and meteorology. Together with ...
Algernon Sidney

Algernon Sidney  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1622–83),the grandnephew of Sir P. Sidney, took up arms against Charles I and was wounded at Marston Moor. He was employed on government service until the Restoration, but his firm republicanism ...
alien

alien  

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Overview Page
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Law
N.A person who, under the law of a particular state, is not a citizen of that state. Aliens are usually classified as resident aliens (domiciled in the host country) or transient aliens (temporarily ...
Alien and Sedition Acts

Alien and Sedition Acts  

(1798).The term “Alien and Sedition Acts” refers to four controversial laws enacted by the Federalist-controlled Congress in 1798 in response to fears about imminent war with France and about ...
American Philosophical Society

American Philosophical Society  

First scientific society in America, founded at Philadelphia (1743) by Franklin, its first president. His successors were Rittenhouse and Jefferson. The Society issues Transactions, Proceedings ...
American Revolution

American Revolution  

When Great Britain virtually eliminated the French from North America with the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War, it was expected that one of the major benefits ...
Amistad Mutiny

Amistad Mutiny  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Rebellion of Africans held captive aboard the slave ship La Amistad that occurred in July 1839 off the northern coast of Cuba.Although England and Spain had signed a treaty ...
Anglo-African Newspaper

Anglo-African Newspaper  

A major forum for black authors and an important source of knowledge about African American culture, the Anglo-African Newspaper was published by Thomas and Robert Hamilton, the sons of the ...
Annexation of Dominican Republic

Annexation of Dominican Republic  

The annexation of the Dominican Republic was a goal of President Ulysses S. Grant from 1869 to 1871. When the issue became controversial, Frederick Douglass's willingness to serve as a ...
antislavery

antislavery  

Slavery was regarded in later 18th‐cent. Britain as essential to the exploitation of the West Indian colonies and there was strong opposition to any interference with the institution, particularly ...
Appointment and Removal Power

Appointment and Removal Power  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The Constitution of the United States contains two references to the appointment and removal power. Article II, section 2 provides that the president, “by and with the advice and consent ...
apportionment

apportionment  

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Allocation of seats to regional units, or to parties under systems of proportional representation.Territorial apportionment is usually a process of adjusting the seats allocated to each unit to ...
archaeology of gardens

archaeology of gardens  

The discipline of archaeology has grown from antiquarian beginnings in the 16th century into a complex subject that encompasses a broad range of techniques including excavation, field and geophysical ...
Army Corps of Engineers

Army Corps of Engineers  

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Overview Page
USACE an organization of the U.S. Army, headquartered in Washington, D.C., with approximately 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women, responsible for providing responsive engineering ...
Bank of the United States

Bank of the United States  

Between 1791 and 1811 and again from 1816 to 1836, the U.S. government created and operated a national bank that by most historical assessments met the nation's financial needs effectively. But the ...
Barbary Wars

Barbary Wars  

(1801-5, 1815), armed naval conflicts with the Barbary States of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. After losing the benefits of British naval protection, the United States agreed to pay tribute ...

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