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Adam of Bremen

Adam of Bremen  

Summoned to Bremen in 1066/7 by Archbishop Adalbert soon after he and his see had suffered setbacks, Adam was made scholasticus and given the task of writing the Gesta Hammaburgensis ...
basileus

basileus  

The ruling principles of Byzantine imperial power had a dual origin: Roman, itself heir to the Alexandrian and Hellenistic tradition, and Christian. The terrestrial order being the reflection of the ...
Bergamo

Bergamo  

Situated in the present-day Italian region of Lombardy, the city of Bergamo lies close to the Alpine foothills. During Lombard rule (568/9–774), it was the site of an important duchy ...
Boleslas II the Bold

Boleslas II the Bold  

(1041/42–1081)Boleslas the Bold or the Generous, in Polish Bolesław Śmiały or Szczodry, Polish prince and from 1076 king of Poland, was the son of the Polish prince Casimir the ...
Burgos

Burgos  

Located on the banks of the Arlanzón river (Castile), the city began as a military outpost in the 880s. Strategically placed, its castle kept a watch for Muslim raids. By ...
Callistus II

Callistus II  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(d. 1124), Pope from 1119. He was a strong opponent of lay investiture; during his pontificate the Investiture Controversy was settled by the Concordat of Worms (1122). At the Lateran Council of 1123 ...
canonical institution or provision

canonical institution or provision  

Canonical provision was the act by which the competent ecclesiastical authority granted an ecclesiastical office. The principle was simple, but the historical outcome was much less so, because of the ...
Canossa

Canossa  

A town in Modena, Italy, where in 1077 the Emperor Henry IV (1050–1106), who had been excommunicated during his struggle with the papacy, was forced to recant and do penance before Pope Gregory VII. ...
capacity

capacity  

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Overview Page
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Law
(to, or of)The personal (physical or mental) or legal factors specific to a person that enable them to achieve some legal outcome such as making a will, voting or ...
cause

cause  

The legal term “cause” (Latin causa) can be understood firstly as a term of Procedure, likened to a demand or question (main cause, incident cause). In fact, the term was ...
Champagne

Champagne  

Province of France. During the MA, the influential counts of Champagne were virtually independent of their nominal suzerain, the king of France, until the conquest of Champagne by Philip III ...
church

church  

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Overview Page
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Religion
The word denotes both a church building and the Christian community, local or universal. The origins of the Church as a sect within 1st-cent. Judaism lie in the Lord's choice of twelve disciples ...
Cologne

Cologne  

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Overview Page
A German city on the Rhine, famous in the Middle Ages for its shrine of the Wise Men of the East, commonly called the Three Kings of Cologne (see the Three Kings).
concordat

concordat  

Formal agreement between the pope and a king or emperor that resolved matters between the two leaders concerning affairs in the secular ruler’s territory. The earliest and best-known agreement was ...
Corvey

Corvey  

(monastery) Founded c.820 by monks from Corbie in Francia, Corvey became one of Saxony’s great monasteries, a missionary, educational, and economic centre. Under the Ottonians its abbots became ...
degrees, academic

degrees, academic  

In the schools of the 12th c. and at the beginning of the creation of the universities, there was only a single degree, that of licence to teach (licentia docendi).[...]
dubbing

dubbing  

Dubbing, conferring the characteristic weapons of knighthood, made a man a knight. At the time of its appearance in the 11th c., it had only a utilitarian character and was ...
Election

Election  

Election, from the Latin term eligere, “to choose”, was the procedure of designating the titular of certain major ecclesiastical posts or Benefices.Electio, in the medieval Church, was distinguished ...
Farfa

Farfa  

According to the only source on its Foundation, the 9th-c. Constructio monasterii Farfensis, the first monastery of Farfa in Sabina was founded by the most holy Lawrence and devastated after ...
feudalism

feudalism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
[De]A strictly hierarchical political and economic system in which land is granted in return for military or labour services.

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