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Abhidhamma-avatāra

Abhidhamma-avatāra  

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Religion
‘An Introduction to Abhidhamma’, being the title of a treatise on Abhidharma (Pāli, Abhidhamma) composed in India by Buddhadatta. The work is mostly in verse and comparable to the Visudhimagga of ...
Abhinavagupta

Abhinavagupta  

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(c.975–1025)Greatest of the Kashmiri Śaiva theologians. His works deal with the theoretical, yogic, and ritual aspects of the Tantric Trika and Krama traditions, the theology of the Pratyabhijñā ...
abhinaya

abhinaya  

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*Acting in the classical Indian tradition. The word signifies leading spectators towards theatrical pleasure as delineated in Bharata's Natyasastra, the ancient Sanskrit text on Indian aesthetics and ...
Abhisamaya-alaṃkāra

Abhisamaya-alaṃkāra  

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Religion
‘The Ornament of Direct Realization’, a text in nine chapters with a total of 273 verses ascribed to Maitreyanātha. The work summarizes the topics covered by the Pañca-viṃśati-prajñā-pāramitā Sūtra ...
Adi Marazban

Adi Marazban  

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(1914–87)Indian playwright, director, editor, and radio and television broadcaster. Trained at the Pasadena Playhouse in the early 1950s, Marazban began writing plays in Parsi-Gujarati on his return ...
Adulis

Adulis  

On the west coast of the Red Sea (at Zulla in Annesley Bay near Massawa), was used by Ptolemy II and III for elephant-hunts (see elephants), and became an important ...
agricultural technology

agricultural technology  

Broadly defined, agricultural technology involves the production, processing, and marketing of a constellation of edible and non-edible commodities produced on farms. These commodities ranged from ...
aharya

aharya  

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A generic category referring to costumes, make-up, body painting, ornamentation, and the use of stage properties in traditional Indian performances. The details of jewellery, head-dresses, crowns, ...
Ahmadis

Ahmadis  

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Controversial messianic movement founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian, Punjab (British-controlled India), in 1889. Founder claimed to be a “nonlegislating” prophet (thus not in opposition to the ...
Akbar

Akbar  

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Religion
(b. 1542, r. 1556–1605)Mughal emperor, known as ‘The Great’. He showed a constructive interest in Hindu and other non-Muslim religious ideas, as well as encouraging a variety of religious practices, ...
al- Bīrūnī

al- Bīrūnī  

(973 - after 1050)One of the greatest scholars of the Muslim world, born in Khwārizm and died at Ghazna soon after 1050. He was interested in History, Mathematics, astronomy ...
al- Ḥallāj

al- Ḥallāj  

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(d. 922)Persian Sufi preacher and missionary. Ideal of piety and spiritual valor in Sufi tradition and broader Islamic cultural context. Claimed to have experienced an ecstatic sense of spiritual ...
Alexander Romances

Alexander Romances  

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Literature
Generic term for the large group of enormously popular narrative poems, mainly in French and with a rich iconographic tradition, devoted to the life of Alexander the Great. Deriving initially ...
Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great  

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[Na]Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of Greece in 336 bc. ...
Aligarh

Aligarh  

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Large town in western India associated with major Muslim educational, political, and ideological movements since the late nineteenth century. Headquarters of Aligarh Scientific Society and Mohammadan ...
amateur theatre

amateur theatre  

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In Britain amateur theatre reached its height in the 19th century, when many of the best-known amateur societies were founded, among them the Old Stagers, who have given performances closely ...
Amitāyurdhyāna-Sūtra

Amitāyurdhyāna-Sūtra  

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(‘Sūtra on Contemplation on Amitāyus’). One of the three basic sūtras of the Pure Land School (with Amitābha-Sūtra and Sukhāvatīvyūha). It describes the pure land and the moral life which prepares ...
Amoghasiddhi

Amoghasiddhi  

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(Skt., ‘the unerring achiever of the goal’).One of the five transcendent Buddhas in Mahāyāna and Zen Buddhism. His mudra is that of fearlessness, and his emblem is vajra, the absolute and ...
Amoghavajra

Amoghavajra  

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(705–74).A native of south India.Amoghavajra is considered the sixth patriarch of esoteric Buddhism in China. He was also a prolific translator. He became a Buddhist novice at the age of 13, arrived ...
Amrita Pritam

Amrita Pritam  

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(1919–2005),Indian author and poet. Amrita is best known for her dirge invoking the eighteenth‐century poet Waris Shah, urging him to lament the condition of Punjabi women at the time of India's ...

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