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ideological state apparatus

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always-already given

always-already given  

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Overview Page
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Media studies
1. (givenness) Broadly, in cultural theory, a key abstract concept that is taken for granted as an essential starting-point for any theory—often inexplicit but nevertheless the philosophical ...
apparat

apparat  

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A Russian word literally meaning ‘apparatus’, used to denote the machinery of state administration. Its primary use in English is pejorative, denoting a faceless, privileged, and all‐powerful ...
cinematic apparatus

cinematic apparatus  

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Overview Page
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Media studies
In the Marxist and psychoanalytic traditions of film theory (e.g. Baudry), the whole system of cinematic technologies and practices that not only produces films but also constructs film ...
critical theory

critical theory  

1. Theories associated with the neo-Marxist Frankfurt school which involve the ideological analysis of society and culture. Influenced by Marxist theory and Freudian psychoanalytic theory.2. Any ...
dialectical criticism

dialectical criticism  

Fredric Jameson's term for his approach to literary and cultural analysis. The essential tenets of the approach—he insists that it is not a method as such, which would imply a ‘one size fits all’ ...
false consciousness

false consciousness  

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A Marxist concept, referring to thinking that confirms human servitude, rather than emancipating the species essence. It refers to the purpose served by thought in the collective life of humanity. ...
Hayden White

Hayden White  

(1928–)Americanhistorian best known for his post-structuralist approach and his emphasis on the importance of tropes in historiography. Educated at Wayne State University and the University of ...
ideology

ideology  

Any wide-ranging system of beliefs, ways of thought, and categories that provide the foundation of programmes of political and social action: an ideology is a conceptual scheme with a practical ...
interpellation

interpellation  

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Overview Page
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Media studies
Althusser's term to describe a mechanism whereby the human subject is ‘constituted’ (constructed) by pre-given structures (a structuralist stance). By being named or ‘hailed’ as a member of a group, ...
invented tradition

invented tradition  

It has every appearance of being an actual tradition, in that it repeats images and symbols drawn from the past (real or imagined), but is in fact both of a relatively recent origin and artificially ...
Louis Althusser

Louis Althusser  

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(1918–1990)French Marxist philosopher, whose writings were widely influential in continental philosophy until he was declared insane.Born near Algiers, Althusser studied philosophy at the École ...
manufacture of consent

manufacture of consent  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. A phrase originally coined in 1922 by the American journalist Walter Lippmann (1889–1974) to refer to the management of public opinion, which he felt was necessary for democracy to flourish, since ...
mass media

mass media  

The printed press, newspapers and magazines, radio, television, and Internet sites that purvey news, information, misinformation, and all shades of opinion. Mass media provide a platform for ...
Repressive State Apparatus

Repressive State Apparatus  

(RSA)French Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser's concept for what is known in contemporary political discourse as ‘hard power’, i.e. a form of power that operates by means of violence. It is usually ...
socialist Realism

socialist Realism  

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Offically approved styles of art, architecture, literature, etc., in the former Soviet Union and some other Communist countries. In architecture it usually involved a type of coarse stripped ...
sociology of mass media

sociology of mass media  

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A medium is a means of communication such as print, radio, or television. The mass media are defined as large-scale organizations which use one or more of these technologies to communicate with large ...
state

state  

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Following Max Weber's influential definition, a set of institutions that possesses a monopoly on rule-making and the legitimate use of force within a bounded territory—powers collectively termed ...
structural causality

structural causality  

Derived from Baruch Spinoza's conception of God as the immanent cause of all things, Louis Althusser used this term to characterize the causal relationship between abstract entities like the social ...
symptomatic reading

symptomatic reading  

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A mode of reading literary and historical works proposed by French Marxist Louis Althusser which focuses on the text's underlying presuppositions. In particular it tries to determine what a ...

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