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Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- Mansur

Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- Mansur  

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(c. 1160–1199), Almohad caliph.Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub al-Mansur (“the Victorious”) became Almohad caliph in 1184 after his father’s death. His ambition to expand his Andalusian kingdom was thwarted by the ...
al- Mansur

al- Mansur  

[Arabic, ‘the victorious’] The title taken by Muhammad ibn Abi Amir (938–1002), a gifted, ruthless politician who took al-Andalus to the apogee of its power but undermined the Umayyad dynasty.[...]
al-Andalus

al-Andalus  

Arabic name given to the geographical area of the Iberian Peninsula that came under Muslim control in the MA, from 711 to 1492. This period is often referred to as ...
Alfonso I of Aragon

Alfonso I of Aragon  

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(El Batallador [The Battler], c. 1073–1134),king of Aragon and Navarre (r. 1104–1134). The son of Sancho I Ramírez of Aragon (r. 1063–1094) by his second wife, Alfonso eventually succeeded ...
Alfonso III of Asturias

Alfonso III of Asturias  

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(r. 866–910),last king of Asturias, known as “The Great.” Son of Ordoño I (r. 850–866), he inherited a kingdom that corresponded to the modern Spanish province of Asturias, centering ...
Alfonso V of Aragon

Alfonso V of Aragon  

(1396–1458)Eldest son of Fernando de Antequera (Fernando I, 1414–16) and Leonor of Albuquerque, Alfonso was a Castilian prince of the Trastámara family who acceded to the Crown of Aragon ...
Alfonso VI of Castile

Alfonso VI of Castile  

(1040–1109)King from 1065 to 1109, firstly of León, then in 1072 of León, Castile and Galicia, which, separated by his father, he reunified, from 1077 Alfonso entitled himself “Imperator ...
Alfonso VII of Castile-León

Alfonso VII of Castile-León  

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(c.1104–1157)Son of Queen Urraca and Raymond of Burgundy, king of Castile-León 1126–1157. Emulating his grandfather Alfonso VI, Alfonso VII used the title ‘emperor of all Spain’, putting him at ...
Alfonso VIII of Castile

Alfonso VIII of Castile  

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(c. 1155–1214),king of Castile (1158–1214). Alfonso VIII inherited the throne of Castile at the age of two from his father, Sancho III (r. 1157–1158). Sancho’s premature death left his ...
Alfonso XI of Castile

Alfonso XI of Castile  

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(1311–1350),king of Castile (r. 1312–1350). A military reformer and commander of European-wide fame, Alfonso XI ascended to the throne when he was barely a year old after the death ...
battle of Alarcos

battle of Alarcos  

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The battle of Alarcos (19 July 1195) between Alfonso VIII, king of Castile (1158–1214), and Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub, caliph of the Almohads (1184–1199), was the last major Almohad victory in the Iberian ...
battle of Aljubarrota

battle of Aljubarrota  

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The battle of Aljubarrota, on 14 August 1385, was the climax of the struggle over the Portuguese throne begun in 1383 after the death of King Fernão I (r. 1367–1383). ...
Battle of Clavijo

Battle of Clavijo  

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Legend has it that in the year 844 at Clavijo, 18 miles from Logroño in northeastern Spain, Saint James (Santiago) appeared on the battlefield and helped King Ramiro I of ...
battle of Covadonga

battle of Covadonga  

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Semi-legendary encounter in which the Asturian count Pelagius (Pelayo) defeated an Arab army, either in 718 or 722. In later Christian historiography, Pelayo’s victory inaugurates the Reconquista and ...
Battle of Guadalete

Battle of Guadalete  

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The battle of Guadalete, fought in southern Spain most likely in the year 711, witnessed the decisive defeat of the Visigothic forces by Muslim invaders. This brief statement is uncontroversial ...
Battle of La Higueruela

Battle of La Higueruela  

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In November 1430 King Juan II of Castile and his constable, Alvaro de Luna, initiated a military campaign against the Kingdom of Granada. They did not set out to obliterate ...
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa

Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa  

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The battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212) constituted the great turning point in the conflict of Christian and Muslim states in the Hispanic reconquest. Prior to this date, the ...
Battle of Montiel

Battle of Montiel  

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This decisive encounter was fought in 1369 at Montiel, just south of Toledo, between Pedro I, “the Cruel,” of Castile (r. 1350–1366/69) and his rival for the throne, his illegitimate ...
battle of Najerá

battle of Najerá  

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1367.This engagement, fought in northern Spain, contributed much to the renown of Edward, the Black Prince. He had intervened in Castile to assist Peter II (the Cruel), deposed by his half‐brother, ...
Battle of Salado

Battle of Salado  

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The battle of Salado took place near the city of Tarifa, Spain. Alfonso XI (r. 1312–1350) of Castile made hasty preparations and marched south after he received news that the ...

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