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Hundred Days

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Battle of Waterloo

Battle of Waterloo  

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(18 June 1815)A decisive battle between French and British and Prussian forces near the Belgian village of Waterloo. It was fought during the Hundred Days of Napoleon between his hastily recruited ...
Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna  

1814–15.Napoleon's abdication in April 1814 was followed by a preliminary settlement, the first treaty of Paris, which restored the Bourbon monarchy, returned most of France's colonies, allowed her ...
Duke of Wellington

Duke of Wellington  

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(1769–1852)British soldier and Tory statesman, Prime Minister (1828–30; 1834). Born in Ireland, he served as commander of British forces in the Peninsular War, winning a series of victories against ...
French army

French army  

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The French army's rise paralleled that of the state it served. Fifteenth-century kings controlled French-recruited ‘bands’ of infantry and compagnies d'ordonnance of heavy cavalry, as well as foreign ...
Gebhard Lebrecht Blücher

Gebhard Lebrecht Blücher  

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(1742–1819)Prussian field-marshal, whose victories were due more to dash and energy than to military tactics. Forced to surrender to the French in 1806, he helped to re-create his country's ...
Louis Nicolas Davout, Duke of Auerstädt

Louis Nicolas Davout, Duke of Auerstädt  

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(1770–1823)Marshal of France. He was made a general by Napoleon after the Battle of Marengo (1800) and marshal in 1804. One of Napoleon's ablest generals, his third corps played a major part at ...
Louis XVIII

Louis XVIII  

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(1755–1824)King of France (1795–1824). The brother of Louis XVI, he became titular regent after the death of the latter in 1793, and declared himself king on the death in prison of the ten‐year‐old ...
Marshal L. A. Berthier

Marshal L. A. Berthier  

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(1753–1815).Amanuensis to Napoleon, Berthier has sadly received scant attention from military historians, for it was he that laid the foundations for the emperor's glory. He was the staff officer ...
Marshal Nicholas Jean de Dieu Soult

Marshal Nicholas Jean de Dieu Soult  

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(1769–1851).Soult was born into a merchant family in the south of France and grew up a stocky and hardy young man, enlisting in the army in 1785 to help ...
Michel Ney

Michel Ney  

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(1769–1815)Marshal of France. The most famous and popular of Napoleon's generals, he served Napoleon in the brilliant campaigns of 1794 and 1795, commanded the army of the Rhine (1799), and conquered ...
Napoleon I

Napoleon I  

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(1769–1821)Emperor of the French (1804–14). Born in Ajaccio, he was a Corsican of Italian descent. By the age of 26 he was a general, and placed in supreme command of the campaign against Sardinia ...
Saint-Cyr, Marshal Laurent Gouvion, Marquis de

Saint-Cyr, Marshal Laurent Gouvion, Marquis de  

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(1764–1830).Saint-Cyr, an artist by trade and inclination, joined the army in 1792 and subsequently rose very rapidly to become a divisional commander. He saw service at the siege of ...
Sir Thomas Picton

Sir Thomas Picton  

(1758–1815).Soldier. Born in Pembrokeshire, he joined the army at 13, but was put on half‐pay at the peace in 1783. In 1794 he volunteered for service in the West Indies and fought with distinction, ...
tactics

tactics  

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Pl. n.1 the employment of units in combat.2 the ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other and/or to the enemy in order to use their full potentialities.[...]
Vendée revolt

Vendée revolt  

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(1793–4).Once the French Revolution degenerated into a bloody tyranny as the heads of monarchists and republicans alike rolled, any opposition to what was going on in Paris and the ...
veterans

veterans  

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N.1 a person who has had long experience in a particular field, especially military service: a veteran of two world wars.2 an ex-serviceman or -servicewoman.
Victor, Marshal Claude Victor, Duc de Bellune

Victor, Marshal Claude Victor, Duc de Bellune  

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(1766–1841).Born Claude Victor Perrin, son of a bailiff, Victor served in the ranks of the royal army, earning the nickname ‘Le Beau Soleil’ (Handsome Sun) before leaving in 1791 ...

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