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Thomas Hobbes

(1588—1679) philosopher

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Abraham Wolf

Abraham Wolf  

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Philosophy
(1876–1948)Abraham Wolf was born in Russia and died on 19 May 1948. He was educated at University College London and at St John's College Cambridge. Wolf spent most of ...
absolutism

absolutism  

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A state-form typical of societies in the process of transition from feudalism to capitalism and in which power is concentrated in the person of a monarch, who has at his or her disposal a centralized ...
action

action  

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Philosophy
What an agent does, as opposed to what happens to an agent (or even what happens inside an agent's head). Describing events that happen does not of itself permit us to talk of rationality and ...
aesthetics

aesthetics  

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Philosophy
(Greek sense perception)Kant keeps the ancient Greek usage, in which anything treating of sense perception may be called an aesthetic. The word had earlier been restricted by Baumgarten to the ...
aggression

aggression  

Behaviour in an animal that serves to intimidate or injure another animal, but that is not connected with predation.
Alexander Crombie

Alexander Crombie  

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Philosophy
(1762–1840)Alexander Crombie was born in Aberdeen on 17 July 1762 and died at his estate at Phesdo, Kincardineshire in February 1840. He studied at Marischal College, Aberdeen, where he ...
anarchism

anarchism  

The doctrine associated with Godwin, Bakunin, Proudhon, and others, that human communities can and should flourish without government. Voluntary cooperation should replace the coercive machinery of ...
ancient philosophy

ancient philosophy  

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Philosophy
‘Ancient philosophy’ is the conventional title, in Europe and the English-speaking academy, for the philosophical activities of the thinkers of the Graeco-Roman world. It includes a succession of ...
Anne Conway

Anne Conway  

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Philosophy
(1631–79)Anne Finch was the daughter of Sir Henry Finch, Speaker of the House of Commons. She studied Descartes at an early age, and through her brother, a student at Cambridge, became acquainted ...
Anthony Collins

Anthony Collins  

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Philosophy
(1676–1729)Collins is celebrated primarily as an early ‘free-thinker’ or atheist, with his Discourse of Free-thinking (1713) being the best-remembered of his works. However, he wrote extensively on ...
apathy

apathy  

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Philosophy
Although it is the particular enemy of teachers and sports coaches, apathy often gets a good philosophical press, especially in ethical systems that regard desire and worldly interest as low and ...
Aphra Behn

Aphra Behn  

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Literature
(1640–89).Dramatist and novelist, Aphra Behn was born on 10 July 1640 at Wye, Kent. Her early childhood, spent in the West Indies, later provided inspiration for her novel Oroonoko, a forerunner to ...
applied ethics

applied ethics  

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Philosophy
The subject that applies ethics to actual practical problems, such as those of abortion, euthanasia, the treatment of animals, or other environmental, legal, political, and social problems. See also ...
Archibald Alison

Archibald Alison  

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Philosophy
(1757–1839)Scottish episcopalian clergyman and aesthetician, born in Edinburgh and educated at Glasgow University and Balliol College, Oxford. He was the father of the historian and legal writer Sir ...
Archibald Garden Wernham

Archibald Garden Wernham  

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Philosophy
(1916–89)Archibald Garden Wernham was born in Kirkcaldy in 1916 and died in Aberdeen on 7 May 1989. He was educated at Robert Gordon's College in Aberdeen, at the University ...
Arthur David Ritchie

Arthur David Ritchie  

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Philosophy
(1891–1967)Arthur David Ritchie was born in Oxford on 22 June 1891 and died in Edinburgh on 12 March 1967. Brought up in St Andrews following his Edinburgh-born Hegelian father's ...
atheism

atheism  

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Religion
The theory or belief that God does not exist. The word comes (in the late 16th century, via French) from Greek atheos, from a- ‘without’ + theos ‘god’.
atomism

atomism  

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A philosophical doctrine at least as old as Democritus, and plausibly viewed as an attempt to combine an a priori conviction of the unchangeable and immutable nature of the world with the variety and ...
Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza  

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Philosophy
 (1632–77) Leading Dutch-Jewish philosopher,banned by the Portuguese Jewish community in 1656, probably because of his criticisms of the Scriptures (but possibly because of a financial dispute with ...
Battle of the Books

Battle of the Books  

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Subject:
Literature
A prose satire by Swift, written 1697, when Swift was residing with Sir W. Temple, published 1704.Temple had written an essay on the comparative merits of ‘Ancient and Modern Learning’ (the subject ...

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