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Heinrich Himmler

(1900—1945) German Nazi leader

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Abwehr

Abwehr  

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(Ger.: Abwehr, defence),the German intelligence and counter-intelligence service, 1920–45. The Abwehr served several political masters, being founded, against the spirit of the Versailles Treaty, in ...
Alfred Andersch

Alfred Andersch  

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Literature
(Munich, 1914–80, Berzona),came from a modest middle-class background, which he rejected at an early age. He abandoned his education after only two years at grammar school, trained for the ...
Alfred Rosenberg

Alfred Rosenberg  

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(b. 12 Jan. 1893, d. 16 Oct. 1946).Chief Nazi ideologist A refugee of German descent from Estonia, he joined the Nazi Party in 1919 and became editor of the party newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter ...
Bernadotte, Folke, Count

Bernadotte, Folke, Count  

(b. 2 Jan. 1895, d. 17 Sept. 1948).Swedish international mediator Born in Stockholm, the nephew of King Gustav V of Sweden, he was involved in work for humanitarian causes for most of his life, ...
biological warfare

biological warfare  

The use of pathogenic organisms as weapons in armed conflict and/or the deliberate destruction of public health defenses against pathogens, such as water purification systems, as was done in Iraq in ...
concentration camp

concentration camp  

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Originally a place in which non-combatants were accommodated, as instituted by Lord Kitchener during the Second Boer War (1899–1902). The Boers, mainly women and children, were placed there ...
Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Ernst Kaltenbrunner  

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(1903–46),the son of an Austrian lawyer who followed in his father's footsteps in 1921 when he began studying law at Graz. He joined the Austrian Nazi Party in 1930 ...
forced labour

forced labour  

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Any compulsory labor service, particularly that demanded by a dominant military force of prisoners of war, detainees, or a conquered civilian population. Under some circumstances a government may ...
General Baron Werner von Fritsch

General Baron Werner von Fritsch  

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(1880–1939),German Army officer who served as a staff officer during the First World War. He was promoted maj-general in October 1932, and lt-general and C-in-C of the army in February 1934.[...]
Gestapo

Gestapo  

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The Nazi secret police or Geheime Staatspolizei. In 1933 Hermann Goering reorganized the Prussian plain-clothes political police as the Gestapo. In 1934 control of the force passed to Himmler, who ...
Hermann Wilhelm Göring

Hermann Wilhelm Göring  

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(b. Rosenheim, 12 Jan. 1893; d. Nuremberg 15 Oct. 1946)German; head of government of Prussia 1933–45, Commander-in-Chief of German air force 1935–45, Plenipotentiary of Four-Year Plan 1936 The son of ...
Joachim von Ribbentrop

Joachim von Ribbentrop  

(b. 30 Apr. 1893, d. 16 Oct. 1946).Nazi Foreign Secretary 1938–45 He joined the Nazi Party in 1932 and became a mediator between Hitler and von Papen later that year. After Hitler came to power he ...
Joel Brand

Joel Brand  

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(1906–64),Hungarian Jew who was a leading member of the Jewish Aid and Rescue Committee in Hungary. In May 1944 Eichmann, then inflicting the Final Solution on Hungarian Jews, ordered ...
Joseph Goebbels

Joseph Goebbels  

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(1897–1945)German Nazi leader and politician. In 1933 he became Hitler's Minister of Propaganda, with control of the press, radio, and all aspects of culture. With a total disregard for the truth, he ...
Kripo

Kripo  

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Was the German state criminal investigation branch. In 1936, when Himmler embarked on a reorganization of the police it became, with the Gestapo, a branch of the newly formed Sicherheitspolizei ...
Lebensborn

Lebensborn  

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A neologism meaning ‘fountain of life’, was a Nazi programme organized by Himmler to increase the birthrate of ‘racially sound’ babies.The Lebensborn Registered Society was formed in December 1935 ...
Lt-General Karl Wolff

Lt-General Karl Wolff  

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(1906–84),early SS member who was a pre-war chief of staff to Himmler. After Italy's surrender in September 1943 he became military governor of northern Italy and head of the ...
Nuremberg Trials

Nuremberg Trials  

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(1945–46)An international tribunal for Nazi war criminals. The trials were complex and controversial, there being few precedents for using international law relating to the conduct of states to judge ...
OPERATION REINHARD

OPERATION REINHARD  

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Was the SS organization which implemented the systematic destruction of 2,284,000 Jews in Poland's General Government and was an integral part of the Final Solution. Its headquarters was established ...
Reinhard Heydrich

Reinhard Heydrich  

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(1904–42)German police official. He joined the SS in 1931, and in 1934 became deputy head of the Gestapo. From 1941 he administered the Czech territory of Bohemia-Moravia, his inhumanity earning him ...

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