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Henry IV

(1050—1106)

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Adalbert of Bremen

Adalbert of Bremen  

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Religion
(c.1000–72), Abp. of Bremen–Hamburg from 1043. He was an energetic promoter of missionary activities, especially in the Nordic countries, and planned to become Patriarch of the North. In 1053 Leo ...
Alexander II

Alexander II  

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Religion
(d. 1073), Pope from 1061. He had been Bp. of Lucca. Elected Pope with the support of Hildebrand (later Gregory VII), he was enthroned without the support of the Emp. Henry IV, who had an antipope ...
Anglo-Norman

Anglo-Norman  

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Literature
Designating the French language as spoken and written in the British Isles from the Norman Conquest until the 14th cent. It was a western type of French which, transplanted to Britain, developed ...
Battle at the Unstrut

Battle at the Unstrut  

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The battle at the Unstrut (also called the battle of Homburg) on 9 June 1075 was the decisive encounter in the second phase of the Saxon Wars of Emperor Henry ...
Battle of Canossa

Battle of Canossa  

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By October 1092 Emperor Henry IV had all but driven the countess Matilda of Tuscany from the Po valley. In 1091 Mantua surrendered, and Matilda’s troops were betrayed and defeated ...
Battle of Elster

Battle of Elster  

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The battle of Elster, also known as the battle of Hohen-Molsen, was the final battle in the war between the German king Henry IV and the anti-king Rudolf, Duke of ...
Battle of Mellrichstadt

Battle of Mellrichstadt  

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In this battle, Emperor Henry IV prevented Rudolf of Swabia, the antiking, from combining his army in Saxony with rebel forces in Swabia. After a fierce action that saw both ...
Battle of Pleichfeld

Battle of Pleichfeld  

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In the final major battle Henry IV fought in Germany, his attempt to relieve the siege of Würzburg failed when rebel forces drove the imperial army from the field. The ...
Battle of Visé

Battle of Visé  

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At the beginning of 1106 the nineteen-year-old German king Henry V seemed to have prevailed over his father, the Roman emperor Henry IV, in their struggle for power. After his ...
Bourbon

Bourbon  

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The surname of a branch of the royal family of France. The Bourbons ruled France from 1589, when Henry IV succeeded to the throne, until the monarchy was overthrown in 1848, and reached the peak of ...
Bruno of Magdeburg

Bruno of Magdeburg  

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(d. after 1082),author of Liber de Bello Saxonico (Book on the Saxon War), a history of the conflicts of the German king and Holy Roman emperor Henry IV with ...
canonical institution or provision

canonical institution or provision  

Canonical provision was the act by which the competent ecclesiastical authority granted an ecclesiastical office. The principle was simple, but the historical outcome was much less so, because of the ...
Canossa

Canossa  

A town in Modena, Italy, where in 1077 the Emperor Henry IV (1050–1106), who had been excommunicated during his struggle with the papacy, was forced to recant and do penance before Pope Gregory VII. ...
Countess Matilda

Countess Matilda  

(c.1046–1115)Matilda of Canossa, daughter of Boniface of Canossa and Beatrice of Lorraine, governed the vast family domain (comprising the march of Tuscia, the duchies of Modena, Reggio and Mantua ...
Duchy of Lancaster

Duchy of Lancaster  

The duchy originated in the desire of Henry III to provide for his youngest son Edmund Crouchback, after the failure of a scheme to make him king of Sicily. He was granted many of the estates of ...
Edict of Nantes

Edict of Nantes  

(13 April 1598), an edict signed at Nantes by King Henri IV, who granted the Huguenots (his former co-religionists) extensive rights and confirmed earlier edicts of 1564 and 1570. Under ...
English Parliament

English Parliament  

The word parliamentum is found from the 1240s onwards as a technical term in official records of the exchequer, chancery and law courts. There is however a difference of opinion ...
Gregory VII

Gregory VII  

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Religion
(c.1025–85),pope. Of plebeian origin, born at Soano (Tuscany), he went to Rome when very young, became a monk probably at St Mary on the Aventine, and was chosen by Pope Gregory VI as his chaplain, ...
Guise

Guise  

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History
A branch of the ducal house of Lorraine that rose to prominence in 16th-century France. Claude de Lorraine (1496–1550) was created duke in 1528; he had distinguished himself in a number of French ...
Henri III

Henri III  

(1551–89),King of France and Poland, was born at Fontainebleau, the third son of King Henri II and Catherine de Médicis, the younger brother of François (later Francis II) and ...

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