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Henry II

(1133—1189) king of England, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou

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Alexander III

Alexander III  

(d. 1181), Pope from 1159. After his election, an antipope (Victor IV) was immediately set up and supported by the Emp. Frederick I. During the 17-year schism, Alexander lived mainly in France. Here ...
Ambroise Paré

Ambroise Paré  

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History
(c.1510–90).‘The father of modern surgery’ and of military medicine, Paré was born of humble parents at Bourg Hersent in France, studied as a barber-surgeon, and joined the army in ...
Angevin

Angevin  

Any of the Plantagenet kings of England, especially those who were also counts of Anjou (Henry II, Richard I, and John), descended from Geoffrey, Count of Anjou. The name comes via French from ...
Anglo-Norman

Anglo-Norman  

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Literature
Designating the French language as spoken and written in the British Isles from the Norman Conquest until the 14th cent. It was a western type of French which, transplanted to Britain, developed ...
Anglo-Norman invasion

Anglo-Norman invasion  

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(1169–72).Although 1169 has traditionally been considered as marking the beginning of the Anglo‐Norman invasion of Ireland, the first overseas mercenaries actually arrived around August 1167 in the ...
Aquitaine

Aquitaine  

A region and former province of SW France, on the Bay of Biscay, centred on Bordeaux. A province of the Roman Empire and a medieval duchy, it became an English possession by the marriage of Eleanor ...
assize

assize  

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History
A procedure introduced into English law in the later 12th century by Henry II. The Assize of Clarendon (1166), which dealt with criminal trials, and the Assize of Arms (1181), which reorganized local ...
Assize of Northampton

Assize of Northampton  

1176.The Assize of Northampton was an important stage in the enforcement of English law in the reign of Henry II. In the form of instructions to royal justices, it tightened up the provisions of the ...
Béarn

Béarn  

Region in the Pyrenees; first mentioned as a viscountcy in the Treaty of Verdun (843), opposite the county of Bigorre (both bishoprics). The first parliament (Cour Major) appeared in 1080. ...
benefit of clergy

benefit of clergy  

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History
The exemption of the English clergy and nuns from the jurisdiction of the ordinary civil courts, granted in the Middle Ages but abolished in 1827.
charterhouse

charterhouse  

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Archaeology
[MC]A monastery of the Carthusian order, planned to provide a community of contemplative monks with facilities for worship, accommodation, and subsistence. In its structure, a charterhouse provided ...
Conflicts of Jurisdiction

Conflicts of Jurisdiction  

Conflicts could arise betwen secular jurisdictions of a different order or competence. They were also encountered in ecclesiastical society by reason of the parties in dispute or the nature of ...
congé d'élire

congé d'élire  

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Religion
(Fr.).‘Permission to elect’ a bishop, granted in the Church of England by the Crown to the dean and chapter of the cathedral of the diocese.
Constitutions of Clarendon

Constitutions of Clarendon  

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A document presented by Henry II of England to a council convened at Clarendon, near Salisbury, in 1166. The king sought to define certain relationships between the state and the Church according to ...
Cork

Cork  

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Literature
Irish centre of glass production. In 1780 Ireland was granted permission to export glass and entrepreneurs were encouraged to establish glass houses in Cork because its location on the west ...
Council of Cashel

Council of Cashel  

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Religion
(1172). A council called by Henry II after his invasion of Ireland. It was attended by Bp. Christian of Lismore as Papal legate, nearly all the Irish hierarchy, and most leading Churchmen, together ...
Council of Oxford

Council of Oxford  

(May 1177).Following the death in 1176 of Richard fitz Gilbert, alias Strongbow, lord of Leinster, administration of his lands became the responsibility of the English crown during the minority ...
Court of Common Pleas

Court of Common Pleas  

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History
One of the three courts of common law. The Court of Common Pleas was an offshoot of the curia regis, the court which followed the king on his travels around the country. The insistence of Magna Carta ...
Court of King's Bench

Court of King's Bench  

Court of, the principal common law court in England, having original jurisdiction over pleas of the Crown, and also an important jurisdiction in private pleas by legal fiction.DL
court poetry

court poetry  

Much of the Latin poetry composed in the MA was written for lay and ecclesiastical magnates and their households. Writers of such verse tended to be classically educated courtier-clerics, from ...

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