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Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz

(1821—1894) German physiologist and physicist

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acoustic

acoustic  

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Music
(ă-koo-stik)of or relating to sound or the sense of hearing. a. nerve see cochlear nerve. a. neuroma see (vestibular) schwannoma.
Alhazen

Alhazen  

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(c.965–1038) Arabian scientistBorn in Basra (now in Iraq), Alhazen was one of the most original scientists of his time. About a hundred works are attributed to him; the main one was translated into ...
art and science

art and science  

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Have been interdependent in highly creative ways since the fifteenth century. Artists have utilized scientific and mathematical principles since the popularization of perspective in Leon Battista ...
Benham's top

Benham's top  

A black-and-white patterned disc that induces perceptions of colours, called pattern-induced flicker colours (PIFCs), when rotated in white or monochromatic light. The basic design (on which there ...
biochemistry

biochemistry  

The study of the chemistry of living organisms, especially the structure and function of their chemical components (principally proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). Biochemistry has ...
bureaus of standards

bureaus of standards  

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The origin of national and international bureaus of standards lies in the interest in metrology during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. On the eve of the French Revolution ...
Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage  

(1792–1871)British mathematician and inventor of mechanical calculators. His ‘analytical engine’ was designed to perform mathematical operations mechanically using a number of features essential in ...
colour vision

colour vision  

The ability of the eye to detect different wavelengths of light and to distinguish between these different wavelengths and their corresponding colours. In the mammalian eye this is achieved by the ...
conservation law

conservation law  

A law stating that the total magnitude of a certain physical property of a system, such as its mass, energy, or charge, remain unchanged even though there may be exchanges of that property between ...
David Courtenay Marr

David Courtenay Marr  

(1945–80).British psychologist, born at Woodford in Essex. In his short life, David Marr made a contribution to the psychology of vision that could be regarded as more important than ...
depth perception

depth perception  

The visual perception of three-dimensional space through monocular cues and binocular cues that are present in the two-dimensional images projected on to the retinas of the eyes. It is served by the ...
Edwin Garrigues Boring

Edwin Garrigues Boring  

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Philosophy
(1886–1968).American psychologist, who became Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard. He won distinction for his History of Experimental Psychology (1929; revised edition 1942), which traces ...
electrolysis

electrolysis  

The production of a chemical reaction by passing an electric current through an electrolyte. In electrolysis, positive ions migrate to the cathode and negative ions to the anode. The reactions ...
electrophoresis

electrophoresis  

The migration, under the influence of an electric field, of charged particles within a stationary liquid. The liquid may be a normal solution or held upon a porous medium (e.g. starch, acrylamide ...
energetics

energetics  

The study of how energy is transferred and used in a system, such as an ecosystem.
ether

ether  

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A possibly nonexistent entity invoked from time to time to fill otherwise empty spaces in the world and in natural philosophy. Descended from the Aristotelian quintessence, which occupied the realms ...
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac

Étienne Bonnot de Condillac  

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Literature
(1715–80)French philosopher of mind. Born in Grenoble, and originally trained for the priesthood, Condillac became one of the leading followers and interpreters of the empiricist philosophy of Locke, ...
evolution of the ear

evolution of the ear  

There are several different designs of vertebrate ears. The evolution of hearing organs has progressed along at least three parallel evolutionary pathways, with convergent functional results. Three ...
Ewald Hering

Ewald Hering  

(1834–1918).German physiologist, born and raised near the Bohemian border; the son of a pastor. He studied medicine in Leipzig in the 1850s. His contributions to sensory physiology contrast ...
exhibitions

exhibitions  

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The temporary display in a given location of a selection of artworks or artefacts. The very first exhibitions of *‘Old Masters’ were held in Rome and Florence in the 17th century. By the 19th century ...

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