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Aaron Roth

Aaron Roth  

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Religion
Mystical teacher and Hasidic master (1894–1944). Roth was born in Ungvar, Hungary. He studied the Talmud under Rabbi Isaiah Silverstein and Moses Forhand and came under the influence of various ...
Abraham Joshua Heschel

Abraham Joshua Heschel  

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Religion
Religious philosopher (1907–72). Heschel was descended on both his father's and mother's side from a long line of Hasidic Zaddikim. Heschel himself seemed destined to occupy the role of a Hasidic ...
Alcimus

Alcimus  

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Religion
High priest in Jerusalem from c.162 to 159 bce. Following the restoration of the sacrificial cult by Judah the Maccabee in 164 bce, the post of high priest seems to ...
Annihilation of Selfhood

Annihilation of Selfhood  

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Religion
The mystical state in which the ego, confronted by the divine, especially in prayer, loses its separate identity; Heb. bittul ha-yesh. The doctrine of self-annihilation is prominent in Hasidism in ...
Baʿal Shem

Baʿal Shem  

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Religion
(Heb., ‘master of the divine name’).Title given in ḥasidic and 'kabbalistic literature to those who possess secret knowledge of God's name. See also ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER, who, as a founder of ḥasidism, ...
Baal Shem Tov Israel ben Eliezer

Baal Shem Tov Israel ben Eliezer  

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(1700–60).Founder of E. European Ḥasidism. Many legends are circulated about the life of Israel Ben Eliezer. On his thirty-sixth birthday, he is said to have revealed himself as a ...
choir

choir  

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Music
Term in Western music for a group of chorus singers, well organized and trained. Original choirs were groups that took part in church services. Secular choir groups evolved later. Related entry, ...
Circumambulation

Circumambulation  

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Religion
The movement around a holy object, or of a holy object. The completion of a circle of protection, or of community, creates an integrity which is otherwise hard to find ...
crucifixion

crucifixion  

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Religion
The execution of a person by nailing or binding them to a cross; practised by the ancient Greeks and Romans, and considered particularly ignominious; the Crucifixion, the killing of Jesus Christ in ...
Devekut

Devekut  

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Religion
(Heb., ‘cleaving’).Communion with God, derived from Heb., davak, being devoted to God. It is a concept and an attainment of great importance in Ḥasidism.
Discipleship

Discipleship  

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Religion
The acceptance by a person of another as master, tutor, and spiritual guide. The two chief examples of discipleship in the Bible are those of Joshua and Moses (Exodus 33: 11; Numbers 12: 28; 27: ...
Dov Baer of Lubavitch

Dov Baer of Lubavitch  

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Religion
Hasidic master (1773–1827), successor to his father, R. Shneur Zalman of Liady, in the leadership of the intellectual tendency in Hasidism known as Habad. He is also known as Dov Baer of Lubavitch ...
Dov Baer of Mezhirech

Dov Baer of Mezhirech  

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Hasidic master (d. 1772), leader, theoretician, and organizer of Hasidism after the death of Israel Baal Shem Tov. Although Dov Baer was a competent Talmudist he was never a town Rabbi, occupying ...
Dynastic Succession

Dynastic Succession  

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Religion
The transfer of power and authority from father to son throughout the generations. Jewish history knows of royal dynasties, especially the dynasty of King David from whom all the kings of Judah were ...
ecstasy

ecstasy  

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Religion
(Greek, standing outside)A state in which normal sense experience is suspended and the subject becomes joyfully conscious of higher things, although what the subject is aware of is then not typically ...
Eleazar of Worms

Eleazar of Worms  

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Religion
(d. c.1230) German Pietist; author of biblical, liturgical, midrashic, and Talmudic commentaries.His best-known works are a halakhic treatise, liturgical poems (piyyutim), and ethical and mystical ...
Eliezer Zweifel

Eliezer Zweifel  

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Religion
Russian author (1815–88), representative of the moderate tendency in the Haskalah. Zweifel was born in Mogilev into a family of Habad Hasidim, acquiring in his youth a very sound knowledge not only ...
Elimelekh of Lyzhansk

Elimelekh of Lyzhansk  

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Religion
(1717–1787), Hasidic master and author. A disciple of Dov Ber of Mezhirech, he became the most influential Hasidic leader in Galicia after his teacher’s death in 1772. He was one ...
Elisha

Elisha  

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Religion
(9th century bc), a Hebrew prophet, disciple and successor of Elijah, who invited Jehu to lead the revolt against the house of Ahab, and who healed Naaman of his leprosy.
envy

envy  

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Religion
In the OT there are several examples of the evil operation of envy: Cain murdered his brother Abel (Gen. 4: 8), Joseph was envied and deported by his brothers (Gen. 37: 27), and Saul resented ...

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