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halakhah

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Aggadah

Aggadah  

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Overview Page
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Religion
The aspect of Jewish, especially Talmudic, literature that embraces all non-legal topics. Aggadah treats of Jewish history, ethics, philosophy, folklore, medicine, astronomy, popular proverbs, pious ...
Agunah

Agunah  

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Religion
A woman bound or ‘chained’ either to a missing husband or to one who refuses to divorce her. In Jewish law the State cannot intervene to grant a couple a divorce. The only way a married woman can ...
apostasy

apostasy  

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Religion
The abandonment of Christianity. Until 1983 the term was used in the RC Church also of public defection from the RC Church and of desertion by a professed religious who had taken perpetual vows.
Avodah Zarah

Avodah Zarah  

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Religion
(Heb., ‘idolatrous worship’).Tractate of the Mishnah, tosefta, and Talmud, assigned to the order of ‘Nezikim’ (torts). It includes both halakhic and aggadic material, and deals with the laws ...
Beit Din

Beit Din  

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Religion
(; house of judgment), a court of law guided by the principles of recognized halakhah in dealing with matters of civil, criminal, or religious law. The command to appoint judges ...
Beruryah

Beruryah  

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Religion
(2nd cent. ce).Jewish woman scholar of the Talmud. The wife of R. Meir, she was the only woman in Talmudic literature whose halakhic opinions were respected. In the so-called ...
bioethics

bioethics  

(by-oh-eth-iks)an area of applied ethics relating to moral behaviour in the life sciences. Medical ethics is now often considered a subspecialty of bioethics (biomedical ethics).
Conservative Judaism

Conservative Judaism  

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Religion
The form of the Jewish religion that occupies the middle ground between Orthodox and Reform Judaism, with its centre in the United States, where it is the largest of the three movements, and with ...
David ben Samuel/ha-Levi

David ben Samuel/ha-Levi  

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Religion
(1586–1667).Jewish halakhic authority. At the end of his life, persuaded by his sons, he seems to have given his support to Shabbetai Zevi. His most important work, Turei Zahav ...
Duran Family

Duran Family  

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Religion
A family of rabbis and scholars.Shimʿon ben Tsemah. Duran (1361–1444), rabbinic authority and religious philosopher known by the acronym Rashbats. He studied in his native Majorca and in Aragon. ...
Eleazar of Worms

Eleazar of Worms  

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Religion
(d. c.1230) German Pietist; author of biblical, liturgical, midrashic, and Talmudic commentaries.His best-known works are a halakhic treatise, liturgical poems (piyyutim), and ethical and mystical ...
Elijah ben Solomon Zalman

Elijah ben Solomon Zalman  

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Religion
(1720–97).The Vilna Gaon, known as Ha-Gra, a Lithuanian Jewish spiritual leader. He was famous for his great learning and produced more than seventy works and commentaries on the Bible ...
Eruv

Eruv  

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Religion
(Heb., ‘mixing’).A symbolic act, by which Sabbath restrictions can be circumvented. Such acts include carrying burdens on the Sabbath by amalgamating holdings; walking further than the permitted ...
exegesis, Jewish biblical

exegesis, Jewish biblical  

Throughout the MA biblical exegesis was one of the most active fields of Jewish literary production, both in Bible commentaries and in linguistic, philosophical, and jurisprudential writings which ...
Frankists

Frankists  

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Religion
The followers of Jacob Frank (1726–91) in Podolia, south-east Poland, who formed themselves into a Shabbetean sect (see SHABBETAI ZEVI). Frank, a charismatic figure but also, by all accounts, ...
Giving of the Torah

Giving of the Torah  

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Religion
(Heb. mattan Torah), the central event in the establishment of the covenant between God and the Israelite people, in the form of a body of divinely revealed legislation (religious, moral ...
Haggai

Haggai  

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Religion
A Hebrew minor prophet of the 6th century. Also, a book of the Bible containing his prophecies of a glorious future in the Messianic age.
Hai ben Sherira

Hai ben Sherira  

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Religion
(939–1038).Jewish gaon of Pumbedita, hence also known as Hai Gaon. Hai succeeded his father as gaon and was regarded as a supreme halakhic authority. Besides responsa, he also wrote ...
Haskalah

Haskalah  

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Subject:
Religion
‘Enlightenment’, the movement which originated in eighteenth century Germany with the aim of broadening the intellectual and social horizons of the Jews to enable them to take their place in Western ...
Haskamah

Haskamah  

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Religion
(Heb., ‘agreement’).Either rabbinic approval of halakhic decision, or rabbinic recommendation of a particular book (cf. in Christianity, the imprimatur). The first haskamah appeared in the Agur by ...

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