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Adolf I of Altena, archbishop of Cologne

Adolf I of Altena, archbishop of Cologne  

(d. 1205)Supporter of the Guelph faction, especially in the coronation of Otto IV (1198). In order to secure his rights as an imperial prince as well as money, he ...
Anjou

Anjou  

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French dynasty implanted in Italy by Charles I (1227–85), youngest son of Louis VIII. Supporting papal claims against the Hohenstaufen [see frederick ii], Charles defeated Manfredi at Benevento ...
Antichrist

Antichrist  

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Religion
A great personal opponent of Christ, expected by the early Church to appear before the end of the world. The name is recorded from Old English and comes via Old French or ecclesiastical Latin from ...
Arezzo

Arezzo  

A Tuscan city located in the upper valley of the Arno river, Arezzo flourished in the 13th century as a Ghibelline commune rival to Siena and Florence. An important Etruscan ...
Bartolo da Sassoferrato

Bartolo da Sassoferrato  

(1313–57),Italian jurist and political theorist. He studied law at Perugia and Bologna and practised as a judicial assessor at Todi and Pisa, and from 1343 taught law at Perugia. ...
Bartolomeo Scala

Bartolomeo Scala  

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Literature
(1430–97),Italian humanist, born in Florence, the son of a miller. He studied law in Florence and then in Milan under Francesco Filelfo. On returning to Florence he joined the ...
Battle of Legnano

Battle of Legnano  

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The battle of Legnano was fought on 29 May 1176 between the Lombard League of northern Italian cities and Frederick I Barbarossa, King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. It ...
Bavaria

Bavaria  

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History
A south German duchy ruled by the Wittelsbach family (see Appendix 1) from 1180 to 1918. From 1253 to 1504 the duchy was repeatedly partitioned, initially into Upper Bavaria and ...
Bergamo

Bergamo  

Situated in the present-day Italian region of Lombardy, the city of Bergamo lies close to the Alpine foothills. During Lombard rule (568/9–774), it was the site of an important duchy ...
Bianchi e Neri

Bianchi e Neri  

(‘Whites and Blacks’)Tuscan Guelph factions of the beginning of the 14th century. They were chiefly associated with Florence and linked to the antagonism between the families of the Cerchi ...
Blacks and Whites

Blacks and Whites  

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Literature
Although the names Neri and Bianchi probably originated in Pistoia, they are most commonly used to refer to the two factions within the Florentine Guelf party, which emerged in 1300 ...
Boniface VIII

Boniface VIII  

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Religion
(c.1234–1303), Pope from 1294. His pontificate was dominated by his struggle with Philip the Fair of France. The bull ‘Clericis laicos’ (1296) forbade extraordinary taxation of the clergy without ...
Brescia

Brescia  

A fortified city and episcopal see in Lombardy. In 1426 Brescia passed from the Visconti family to Venice, to which it belonged until 1797. In February 1512, during the Wars ...
Brunetto Latini

Brunetto Latini  

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Literature
(c. 1220–c. 1294).Florentine scholar and statesman, author of Li Livres dou tresor, an important early French prose encyclopaedia in three books: the first treats philosophical, doctrinal, ...
Charles I of Anjou

Charles I of Anjou  

(1226–85)King of Naples and Sicily (1266–85), son of Louis VIII of France. He acquired Provence by marriage in 1246. Pope Urban IV was under severe threat from the Hohenstaufens and gave him the ...
Ciompi Revolution

Ciompi Revolution  

The ciompi were the day-labourers in the wool industry in Florence; they were not allowed to join the Wool Guild or form their own association. They were subject to summary ...
Cologne

Cologne  

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A German city on the Rhine, famous in the Middle Ages for its shrine of the Wise Men of the East, commonly called the Three Kings of Cologne (see the Three Kings).
Colonna family

Colonna family  

A Ghibelline family that held large estates in the Papal State south of Rome and in the kingdom of Naples; the Colonna were the perpetual rivals of the Orsini, whose ...
Cremona

Cremona  

A city and episcopal see in Lombardy, incorporated into the duchy of Milan in the early fifteenth century. Cremona was occupied by Venice (1499–1509). Thereafter it was subject to the ...
Cristoforo Landino

Cristoforo Landino  

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Literature
(1424–1504),Italian humanist, poet, and philologist, who during his years as a professor in Florence attempted in his teaching to reconcile Platonism with Aristotelianism and Christian revelation ...

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