Overview

G protein

Return to overview »

You are looking at 1-20 of 29 entries

View:

adenylate cyclase

adenylate cyclase  

The enzyme that catalyses the formation of cyclic AMP. It is bound to the inner surface of the plasma membrane. Many hormones and other chemical messengers exert their physiological effects by ...
ADP-ribosylation

ADP-ribosylation  

A post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of the ADP-ribosyl moiety of NAD. It is a normal regulatory mechanism but is also the way in which several AB toxins have their effects. ...
Albright hereditary osteodystrophy

Albright hereditary osteodystrophy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The skeletal abnormalities, collectively, of pseudohypoparathyroidism. These include short stature, abnormally short fingers and toes (particularly involving the fourth and fifth metacarpals and ...
arrestin

arrestin  

A family of proteins that bind to tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors and block their interaction with G proteins, thereby inhibiting signalling. Arrestin-S (S antigen; 405 aa, from retinal rods) ...
ATP binding site

ATP binding site  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A consensus domain (‘A’ motif) found in many proteins that bind either ATP or GTP. Examples are found in ATP synthase, myosin heavy chain, helicases, thymidine kinase, G protein α-subunits, ...
cellular signal transduction

cellular signal transduction  

The pathways through which cells receive external signals and transmit, amplify, and direct them internally. The pathway begins with cell-surface receptors (q.v.) and may end in the cell nucleus with ...
choleragen

choleragen  

(sometimes) an alternative name for cholera toxin.
cyclic AMP

cyclic AMP  

A derivative of ATP that is widespread in cells as a second messenger in many biochemical reactions induced by hormones. Binding of the hormone to its receptor on the cell surface activates G ...
diabetes insipidus

diabetes insipidus  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A rare metabolic disorder in which the patient produces large quantities of dilute urine and is constantly thirsty. It is due to deficiency of the pituitary hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic ...
Duffy blood group gene

Duffy blood group gene  

The first human genetic locus to be localized on a specific autosome. The gene (symbolized FY) is at 1q21–22, and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. The gene encodes a protein that contains ...
G protein

G protein   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
303 words

guanine nucleotide binding protein; any heterotrimeric GTP‐binding and hydrolysing protein belonging to a superfamily of GTPases that includes the monomeric

G protein-coupled receptor

G protein-coupled receptor  

(GPCR)Any of a superfamily of proteins that are located in cell membranes and act as metabotropic receptors, relaying signals from the exterior to the interior of the cell via associated G proteins. ...
glutamate receptor

glutamate receptor  

Any receptor protein that binds the neurotransmitter glutamate as a ligand. Glutamate receptors fall into two main types: ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), which are ligand-gated ion channels, ...
GNAS locus

GNAS locus  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A complex genomically imprinted locus that produces multiple transcripts through the use of alternative promoters and alternative splicing. Among the transcripts is that for the α subunit of trimeric ...
GTP-binding protein

GTP-binding protein  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Although many proteins bind GTP (e.g. actin, tubulin) the GTP-binding proteins are considered special cases because of their role in signalling. There are two classes of these G proteins: ...
guanosine 5′-triphosphate

guanosine 5′-triphosphate  

symbol: GuoPP[CH2]P or p[CH2]ppG; the recommended name for β,γ‐methyleneguanosine 5′‐triphosphate, (abbr.: GTP[β,γ‐CH2]), 5′‐guanylyl methylenediphosphonate (abbr.: GMP‐PCP), guanosine ...
muscarinic

muscarinic  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Describing one of the two main classes of acetylcholine receptors, so called because the effect of acetylcholine on them can be mimicked by muscarine, a toxic alkaloid produced by Amanita muscaria ...
odorant receptor

odorant receptor  

A protein molecule that resides on the cell surface of an olfactory receptor neuron (q.v.) and which binds an odorant (q.v.). Odorant receptors are encoded by distinct families of odorant receptor ...
pertussis toxin

pertussis toxin  

An essential virulence factor from Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, an AB toxin. The active (A) subunit (269 aa) has ADP-ribosylating activity against inhibitory ...
phospholipase

phospholipase  

Any of various enzymes that cleave particular bonds in the polar phosphate ‘heads’ of glycerophospholipids (see phospholipid). For example, phospholipase C (PLC) cleaves the phosphate-glycerol bond ...

View: