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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

(1749—1832) German poet, dramatist, and scholar

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A. J. Ayer

A. J. Ayer  

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Philosophy
(1910–1989)British philosopher, responsible for introducing the principles of logical positivism of the Vienna Circle to British philosophers. He was knighted in 1970.Born in London, Ayer was ...
Adrià Gual

Adrià Gual  

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(1872–1943)Catalan playwright and director. The author of several pieces which oscillated between rampant modernism and the strictest theatrical realism, Gual is perhaps better recognized as a ...
Agustín de Rojas Villandrando

Agustín de Rojas Villandrando  

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(c.1572–1625),Spanish actor and dramatist, who was for a short time a strolling player, and wrote entertainingly of his experiences in a picaresque novel El viaje entretenido (The Entertaining ...
Albert Bassermann

Albert Bassermann  

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(1867–1952),German actor, nephew of August Bassermann, who made his first appearance at Mannheim under his uncle's management and was with the Meininger company from 1890 to 1895. Under Otto ...
Alberto Isola

Alberto Isola  

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(1953– )Peruvian actor, director, and member of Ensayo in Lima (1983). He studied at Peru's Catholic University, Milan's Piccolo Teatro School, the Drama Centre in London, and Eugenio Barba's ...
Alexander Moissi

Alexander Moissi  

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(1880–1935),German actor of Italian extraction, born in Albania where a drama school has been named after him. He played his first speaking part in German at Prague in 1902 ...
Alfred Roller

Alfred Roller  

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Music
(b Brno, 1864; d Vienna, 1935).Austrian stage designer and painter. In 1890s helped to found Vienna Sezession with Schiele, Kokoschka, and Klimt. Prof. at Vienna School of Art 1900, orch. 1909–34. ...
Anakreontiker

Anakreontiker  

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Literature
German poets mostly writing in the middle of the 18th c., whose poems were avowedly based on ‘Anacreon’, i.e. on 60 Anakreonteia, largely pseudo-Anacreontic odes, published in France by Henri ...
Angelica Kauffmann

Angelica Kauffmann  

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(b Chur, 30 Oct. 1741; d Rome, 5 Nov. 1807).Swiss painter, active mainly in Italy and England. From an early age she travelled with her father, the painter Joseph ...
Anmerkungen übers Theater

Anmerkungen übers Theater  

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Literature
A tract published anonymously in 1774 and at first attributed by some to Goethe. The author was J. M. R. Lenz, and the work is the script of a lecture ...
Anne of Geierstein

Anne of Geierstein  

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Literature
orA novel by Walter Scott, published 1829. It is set in 15th‐century Switzerland. For his material on the Vehmgericht, a secret criminal tribunal with its origins in Westphalia, Scott ...
Annette

Annette  

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Literature
A collection of 19 poems written by Goethe in Leipzig, and copied by his friend Behrisch in 1767. The MS. was discovered in 1894, first published in vol. 37 of ...
Aphorisms and fairy tales

Aphorisms and fairy tales  

In addition to the numerous literary adaptations of fairy tales in the form of prose works, poems, and plays, there also exists a tradition of reducing well-known tales to short ...
Apollonian

Apollonian  

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Literature
Rational and controlled; in the philosophy of the German philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844–1900), of or relating to static qualities of form, reason, harmony, and sobriety. Compare ...
aristocracy

aristocracy  

A vague term, derived from the Greek aristokratia, meaning the rule of the best. It is broader than peerage or even nobility. In common parlance it was usually taken to mean the upper classes or ...
August Wilhelm Iffland

August Wilhelm Iffland  

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Literature
(1759–1814),German actor and playwright, who virtually controlled the National Theatre at Mannheim from its foundation in 1778 until 1796, playing Franz Moor in the first production of Schiller's Die ...
Berlin

Berlin  

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Berlin airlift an operation by British and American aircraft to airlift food and supplies to Berlin in 1948–9, while Russian forces blockaded the city to isolate it from the West and terminate the ...
Berlin Royal Theatre

Berlin Royal Theatre  

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Founded in 1787 by King Friedrich Wilhelm II as a ‘national theatre’, the first building was erected on the Gendarmenmarkt. The theatre provided a mixture of opera, ballet, and drama ...
Bertel Thorvaldsen

Bertel Thorvaldsen  

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(1770–1844).Danish sculptor who became one of the leaders of the international neoclassical movement. He was a pupil of the painter Nicolai Abildgaard at the Royal Academy in Copenhagen and ...
Bildungsroman

Bildungsroman  

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Literature
The term applied to novels of ‘education’ (in the widest sense), of which many of the best examples are German. Wieland's Agathon (1765–6) is usually thought of as the first example of the genre, but ...

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