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Joseph Goebbels

(1897—1945) German Nazi leader and politician

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler  

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(1889–1945)German chancellor and Nazi leader (1933–45). One of the most powerful and evil leaders in the history of the world, he achieved a following in Germany and his native Austria that enabled ...
Alfred Eisenstaedt

Alfred Eisenstaedt  

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(1898–1995)German-born US photographer, who did much to develop the art of photojournalism, especially during his long association with Life magazine.Eisenstaedt was born in Dirschau, West Prussia ...
Alfred Rosenberg

Alfred Rosenberg  

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(b. 12 Jan. 1893, d. 16 Oct. 1946).Chief Nazi ideologist A refugee of German descent from Estonia, he joined the Nazi Party in 1919 and became editor of the party newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter ...
Arnolt Bronnen

Arnolt Bronnen  

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Literature
(b. Vienna, 19 Aug. 1895; d. Berlin, 12 Oct. 1959)Playwright who wrote a number of expressionist plays with a strong left-wing tendency: Geburt der Jugend (‘Birth of youth’, 1925) ...
concentration camp

concentration camp  

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Originally a place in which non-combatants were accommodated, as instituted by Lord Kitchener during the Second Boer War (1899–1902). The Boers, mainly women and children, were placed there ...
deception

deception  

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N.those measures designed to mislead the enemy by manipulation, distortion, or falsification of evidence.
Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui

Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui  

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Literature
A play (Parabelstück) with 15 scenes, prologue (two versions), and epilogue by B. Brecht, written in 1941, for the most part in blank verse. It was published posthumously in Stücke ...
Field Marshal Hugo Sperrle

Field Marshal Hugo Sperrle  

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(1885–1953),German Luftwaffe officer who, in 1936–7, commanded the German Kondor Legion during the Spanish Civil War. This record earned him promotion to maj-general, then lt-general, and he was then ...
Fritz Lang

Fritz Lang  

(1890–1976)Austrian-born film director, who left Germany for France when the Nazis came to power and settled in the USA in 1935.Son of an architect, Lang was born in Vienna and educated at the ...
Führer

Führer  

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(leader), title adopted by Hitler and copied from Mussolini who called himself by the same word in Italian (il duce). Goebbels, who had suggested it, made its use compulsory in ...
Germany

Germany  

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Politically powerful in Europe, Germany also has a large and successful economy, though it is becoming less competitiveGermany has three main geographical regions. From the North Sea and Baltic ...
Heil Hitler

Heil Hitler  

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Used by the Germans or their supporters during the Nazi regime as a greeting or an acclamation of the supremacy of Hitler.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring

Hermann Wilhelm Göring  

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(b. Rosenheim, 12 Jan. 1893; d. Nuremberg 15 Oct. 1946)German; head of government of Prussia 1933–45, Commander-in-Chief of German air force 1935–45, Plenipotentiary of Four-Year Plan 1936 The son of ...
historiography

historiography  

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The movement of the war from memory into history is still far from complete. Many participants still survive, and help to keep the memory green. There is also a legacy ...
Iron Curtain

Iron Curtain  

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History
A term made famous by Winston Churchill (‘An Iron Curtain has descended across the Continent’) in 1946 to describe the boundary between Communist Eastern Europe and the democracies of Western Europe.
Kristallnacht

Kristallnacht  

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Literature
The occasion of concerted violence by Nazis throughout Germany and Austria against Jews and their property on the night of 9 – 10 November 1938. The (German) word means literally ‘night of crystal’, ...
Kurt Schumacher

Kurt Schumacher  

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(b. Kulm, 13 Oct. 1895; d. Bonn, 20 Aug. 1952)German; leader of SPD 1946–52 Many Germans felt ill at ease with Schumacher because he seemed to personify the valour and the suffering of the few ...
Lebensraum

Lebensraum  

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History
Literally, space for living; the term used for territory which many German nationalists in the mid 20th century claimed was needed for the survival and healthy development of the nation.
Leni Riefenstahl

Leni Riefenstahl  

(1902–2003) Germanphotographer and film directorA highly controversial figure, whose involvement in the Nazi regime is still actively debated, she is particularly remembered for two films, Olympia ...
Lilli Marleen

Lilli Marleen  

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Literature
A sentimental poem, written by H. Leip in 1915 and, with a tune by N. Schultze, revived a generation later, when it became the German soldier's favourite song in the ...

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