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Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate

Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate  

(ATOC)An experiment to measure oceanic temperatures by determining the time for sound to travel from acoustic sources off California and Kauai (in the Hawaiian Islands) to hydrophones at various ...
adaptability

adaptability  

A measure of the extent to which a species or ecosystem is able to adjust to environmental change (such as global warming). Such adaptation can be planned or unplanned, and it can be carried out in ...
aerosol

aerosol  

A suspension of droplets or particles in a gas; more precisely, of particles with a maximum diameter of 1 μm (fog and mist are thus aerosols). In meteorology, the term is often used to describe the ...
afforestation

afforestation  

Planting trees. Tree-planting can stabilize soils by increasing interception and reducing run-off, reduce flooding through the reduction of silting, improve soil fertility, and provide timber and ...
Agriculture and Climate

Agriculture and Climate  

The basic industry that produces natural fiber and food for human consumption began between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago in the region now known as the Middle East. Hunters and ...
albedo

albedo  

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Overview Page
Reflectivity, indexed by the proportion of incident light that an object reflects. [From Latin albedo whiteness, from albus white]
Alliance of Small Island States

Alliance of Small Island States  

(AOSIS)A coalition of small, low‐lying island countries formed during the Second World Climate Conference in 1990 that includes 35 states from the Atlantic, Caribbean, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, ...
Annex A Gases

Annex A Gases  

The greenhouse gases whose emissions are regulated by the Kyoto Protocol (as defined in Annex A) in order to reduce global warming and slow down climate change. The gases are carbon dioxide, methane, ...
Annex II Countries/Parties

Annex II Countries/Parties  

The countries listed in Annex II to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that have a special obligation to help developing countries with financial and technological resources ...
Antarctica

Antarctica  

The fifth largest and by far the coldest of the seven continents. It is centred on the South Pole, located mostly within the Antarctic Circle, covered with ice (which in places is more than 2000 ...
anthropogeomorphology

anthropogeomorphology  

The study of those land-forms and processes that are a direct result of human activity, including accelerated erosion, channelized river channels (i.e. rivers made to flow along fixed, sometimes ...
Arctic

Arctic  

The area lying above 66.5° North that is dominated by the Arctic Ocean but also includes large land areas in Canada, Russia, Greenland, Scandinavia, Iceland, and Alaska. Some of the land areas, ...
Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation  

(AMO)A series of long-term changes in sea-surface temperatures involving almost the whole of the North Atlantic, with a periodicity of 20–40 years. It is determined from annual ocean temperature ...
Biometeorology

Biometeorology  

The scientific study of the interactions between living organisms and their atmospheric environment, called biometeorology, is one of the interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, or cross-disciplinary ...
boreal forest

boreal forest  

The circumpolar, subarctic forest of high northern latitudes that is dominated by conifers. To the north it is bounded by tundra and to the south by temperate, broad-leaved, deciduous forest, steppe, ...
carbon cycle

carbon cycle  

The movement of carbon through the surface, interior, and atmosphere of the Earth. Carbon exists in atmospheric gases, in dissolved ions in the hydrosphere, and in solids as a major component of ...
carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide  

A colourless, odourless gas which is the fourth most abundant component of the air in the homosphere, amounting to about 0.035 per cent by volume. It is released by volcanoes, part of the source ...
carbon management

carbon management  

An approach to limiting the emission of carbon dioxide that is based on storing it (for example in carbon sinks), or using it in ways that prevent its release into the air.
carbon sequestration

carbon sequestration  

(carbon capture and storage, CCS)The storage of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in natural sites, thus removing it from the atmosphere and reducing global warming. Carbon may be sequestered in ...
carbon tax

carbon tax  

A tax or surcharge on the sale of fossil fuels (oil, coal, and gas) that varies according to the carbon content of each fuel, and is designed to discourage the use of fossil fuels and reduce ...

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