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W. E. Gladstone

(1809—1898) prime minister and author

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Afghan wars

Afghan wars  

From 1807, when the armies of Tsar Alexander I reached its northern borders, Afghanistan became an uneasy neutral zone between the Russian and the British Indian empires around which ‘the Great Game’ ...
Albert Venn Dicey

Albert Venn Dicey  

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Law
(1835–1922)A. V. Dicey was born at Lutterworth in Leicestershire on 4 February 1835 and died in Oxford on 7 April 1922. His father, a Cambridge graduate, was proprietor of ...
Archibald Campbell Tait

Archibald Campbell Tait  

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Religion
(1811–82), Abp. of Canterbury from 1868. At Oxford in 1841 he was one of the four tutors who protested against Tract 90 (see Tractarianism), and as Bp. of London (1856–68) he withdrew the licence of ...
Arthur Henry Hallam

Arthur Henry Hallam  

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Philosophy
(1811–33),became a close friend of Tennyson, and after his early death, the subject of Tennyson's poem In Memoriam. His Remains, edited by his father Henry Hallam in 1834, contain work of distinction ...
Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli  

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Literature
(1804–81),first earl of Beaconsfield, politician, prime minister, novelist, eldest son of I. D'israeli. He was to attempt an ambitious variety of literary forms before he settled on the novel. His ...
Board of Trade

Board of Trade  

The origins of the department may be traced back to 1621 when, in the face of a trade recession, a number of committees were appointed, under the guidance of Cranfield, to consider the matter. At the ...
Boer wars

Boer wars  

(1880–81; 1899–1902)Wars fought between Britain and Transvaal and between Britain and Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The first arose from the British annexation of the Transvaal in 1877 and the ...
cabinet

cabinet  

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The term was first used in the early 17th century for the private room in which confidential advisers of the sovereign or chief ministers of a country meet; the current sense of a committee of senior ...
Central Board

Central Board  

A scheme of Irish local government devised by the English Liberal Joseph Chamberlain in 1885 as a substitute for an Irish parliament. In its final form it combined an elected ...
Charles Stewart Parnell

Charles Stewart Parnell  

(1846–91)Irish nationalist leader. Elected to Parliament in 1875, Parnell became leader of the Irish Home Rule faction in 1880, and, through his obstructive parliamentary tactics, successfully raised ...
coercion bills

coercion bills  

Under various names, were a sombre obbligato to Anglo-Irish relations throughout much of the 19th cent. Sometimes produced by threat of revolution or actual insurrection, or by widespread agrarian ...
constructive unionism

constructive unionism  

Or ‘killing Home Rule by kindness’, titles given to the Irish policy of successive Conservative governments in the period 1895–1905. The policies concerned fall into three broad categories: land, ...
Contemporary Review

Contemporary Review  

Founded in 1866, covered religious, political and literary subjects; in 1955 it incorporated the Fortnightly, and now deals largely with current affairs.
Crofters' Act

Crofters' Act  

1886.Crofts are smallholdings, particularly found in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. Clearances in the 18th cent. had pushed numbers of tenants into crofts near the sea, where kelping ...
Deiniol

Deiniol  

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Religion
(d. c.584),monk and bishop. Reputedly a descendant of Coel Godebog, a Celtic chieftain of North Britain, Deiniol founded the two monasteries of Bangor Fawr (on the Menai Straits) and Bangor Iscoed ...
Demos

Demos  

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Literature
A novel by George Gissing, published anonymously in three volumes in 1886 by Smith, Elder. The densely political plot reflects Gissing's views on the failure of socialism. The proletarian agitator ...
Devonshire, Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th duke of, marquis of Hartington

Devonshire, Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th duke of, marquis of Hartington  

(1833–1908).Heir to the Cavendish family's dukedom and a Palmerstonian Whig, Hartington was an MP at 24 and a cabinet minister at 34. Elected Liberal leader in the Commons after Gladstone's ...
Disestablishment

Disestablishment  

The 19th cent. saw the questioning of the right of a church which represented only a minority of Christian believers to be the established church, its clergy maintained by parishioners who did not ...
Earl of Oxford and Asquith Herbert Asquith

Earl of Oxford and Asquith Herbert Asquith  

(1852–1928)British statesman, Liberal leader (1908–26), and prime minister (1908–16). Though his leadership of the nation was unconvincing, he is regarded as having been an outstanding ...
Ecce Homo

Ecce Homo  

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Religion
(Lat., ‘Behold the Man!’). The title of a controversial Life of Christ published by Sir John Seeley in 1865. It depicted the Lord as a moral reformer.

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