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anticlericalism

anticlericalism  

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Overview Page
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History
The opposition to the secular influence of the Church, usually the Roman Catholic Church. It was a major theme in the domestic politics of several European countries during the late nineteenth ...
Camille Desmoulins

Camille Desmoulins  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1760–94)French journalist and Revolutionary. He became an advocate in the Paris Parlement in 1785, and four years later, after the dismissal of Necker, he summoned the crowd outside the Palais Royal ...
Charlotte Corday d'Armont

Charlotte Corday d'Armont  

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Literature
(1768–93)French noblewoman, the murderess of Marat. After a lonely childhood in Normandy she began to attend the meetings of the Girondins, where she heard of Marat as a tyrant and conceived the idea ...
French Revolution

French Revolution  

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Literature
(1789)The political upheaval that ended with the overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy in France and marked a watershed in European history. Various groups in French society opposed the ancien régime ...
Georges Danton

Georges Danton  

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Literature
(1759–94)French revolutionary. A noted orator, he won great popularity in the early days of the French Revolution. He served as Minister of Justice (1792–94) in the new republic and was a founder ...
Jacobin

Jacobin  

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Literature
Originally a name of the French friars of the order of St Dominic, so called because the church of St Jacques in Paris was given to them and they built their first convent nearby. From them the name ...
Jacques-René Hébert

Jacques-René Hébert  

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Literature
(1757–94)French journalist and Revolutionary. He became a prominent member of the Cordeliers Club (an extreme Revolutionary club) in 1791. The following year he was a member of the Commune of Paris ...
Jean Paul Marat

Jean Paul Marat  

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Overview Page
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Literature
(1743–93)French revolutionary and journalist. The founder of a radical newspaper, he became prominent during the French Revolution as a virulent critic of the moderate Girondists and was instrumental ...
Jean-Baptiste Louvet de couvray

Jean-Baptiste Louvet de couvray  

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Subject:
Literature
(1760–97).French novelist, who from 1789 onwards was actively involved in politics and was a powerful orator. He joined the Girondins, was prominent in attacking Robespierre, and had to spend ...
Jean-Pierre Brissot

Jean-Pierre Brissot  

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Subject:
Literature
(1754–93).French Revolutionary leader. After a chequered literary and political career, he was elected a député in 1789 and became leader of the ‘Brissotin’ party, subsequently the Girondins, ...
Louis de Saint-Just

Louis de Saint-Just  

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History
(1767–94)French Revolutionary leader. He was elected an officer in the National Guard when the French Revolution began; his great loyalty to Robespierre led to his appointment to the National ...
Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Condorcet  

(1743–94)French mathematician and social theorist. Condorcet was educated by Jesuits, and became the permanent Secretary of the Académie des Sciences, for which he was qualified by his mathematical ...
Maximilien Robespierre

Maximilien Robespierre  

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Literature
(1758–94)French Revolutionary politician; one of the architects of the ‘Reign of Terror’ (1793–4) which claimed his own life. His deification of ‘the people’ using slogans loosely connected with ...
Mme Roland

Mme Roland  

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Subject:
Literature
(1754–93)French Revolutionary, whose salon became the centre of the Girondin party. Through her political influence her husband, Jean-Marie Roland (1734–93), was appointed Minister of the Interior in ...
Montagnards

Montagnards  

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Literature
Name given to the radical deputies who sat in the most elevated section (‘La Montagne’) of the Convention Nationale during the Revolution; the group included about one‐third of the deputies ...
National Assembly

National Assembly  

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Literature
The revolutionary assembly formed by members of the Third Estate on 17 June 1789 when they failed to gain the support of the whole of the French States-General. Three days later the members signed ...
Pierre Vergniaud

Pierre Vergniaud  

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Subject:
Literature
(1753–93).The most eloquent of the Girondin orators during the Revolution. Having practised as a lawyer in Bordeaux, he was elected to the Assemblée Législative in 1791 and played a ...
Reign of Terror

Reign of Terror  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A period of the French Revolution that began in March 1793 when the Revolutionary government, known as the Convention, having executed the king, set about attacking opponents and anyone else ...

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