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Abwehr

Abwehr  

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(Ger.: Abwehr, defence),the German intelligence and counter-intelligence service, 1920–45. The Abwehr served several political masters, being founded, against the spirit of the Versailles Treaty, in ...
biological warfare

biological warfare  

The use of pathogenic organisms as weapons in armed conflict and/or the deliberate destruction of public health defenses against pathogens, such as water purification systems, as was done in Iraq in ...
Christiaan Lindemans

Christiaan Lindemans  

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(1912–46),Dutch garage hand called ‘King Kong’, and a double agent, ran a successful Allied escape line (see MI9) from the Netherlands to Paris till March 1944, when he secretly ...
concentration camp

concentration camp  

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Originally a place in which non-combatants were accommodated, as instituted by Lord Kitchener during the Second Boer War (1899–1902). The Boers, mainly women and children, were placed there ...
Count Galeazzo Ciano

Count Galeazzo Ciano  

(b. 18 Mar. 1903, d. 11 Jan. 1944).Italian Fascist leader Born in Livorno, he obtained a degree in law from Rome in 1925, and entered the diplomatic service. Not surprisingly, his career was ...
Dietrich Bonhoeffer

Dietrich Bonhoeffer  

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Religion
(1906–1945)German Protestant pastor and theologian. His arguments for a ‘worldly’ Christianity, pertinent to man's condition in the twentieth century, fuelled the debate on the secularization of ...
Disarmed Enemy Forces

Disarmed Enemy Forces  

DEF official designation of German soldiers who surrendered to the Allies at the end of World War II in Europe and were subsequently held under abominable conditions in camps in ...
double agent

double agent  

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Agent in contact with two opposing intelligence services, only one of which is aware of the double contact or quasi-intelligence services.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Ernst Kaltenbrunner  

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(1903–46),the son of an Austrian lawyer who followed in his father's footsteps in 1921 when he began studying law at Graz. He joined the Austrian Nazi Party in 1930 ...
Francisco Largo Caballero

Francisco Largo Caballero  

(b. 15 Oct. 1869, d. 23 Mar. 1946).Prime Minister of the Spanish Republic 1936–7 Born in Madrid, he was forced to leave school and work at the age of 7, eventually becoming a plasterer. Owing to his ...
Friedrich Paulus

Friedrich Paulus  

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(b. 23 Sept. 1890, d. 1 Feb. 1957).German field marshalIn January 1942 he became commander of the 6th Army, with which he took the city of Stalingrad in November 1942. He was encircled by the Red ...
Germany

Germany  

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Politically powerful in Europe, Germany also has a large and successful economy, though it is becoming less competitiveGermany has three main geographical regions. From the North Sea and Baltic ...
Guy Mollet

Guy Mollet  

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(b. 31 Dec. 1905, d. 3 Oct. 1975).Prime Minister of France 1956–7 Son of a textile worker, he joined the Socialist Party in 1923 and became a teacher in Arras. He became a Résistance leader in World ...
Gyula Horn

Gyula Horn  

(b. 5 July 1932).Prime Minister of Hungary 1994–8 Born in Budapest, he joined the Communist Party as a teenager, after his father had been murdered by the Gestapo for his Communist convictions. He ...
Hans von Dohnanyi

Hans von Dohnanyi  

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(1902–45),longstanding anti-Nazi, and Dietrich Bonhoeffer's brother-in-law, who was a pre-war judge of the German Supreme Court in Leipzig. He was recruited into the Abwehr as a Sonderführer and ...
Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Himmler  

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History
(1900–45)German leader, chief of the SS (1929–45) and of the Gestapo (1936–45). He established and oversaw the programme of systematic genocide of more than 6 million Jews and other disfavoured ...
Hermann Goering

Hermann Goering  

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History
(b. 12 Jan. 1893, d. 15 Oct. 1946).German Nazi leader A successful fighter pilot during World War I, he became the commander of Baron von Richthofen's fighter-plane squadron. Goering joined the Nazi ...
János Kádár

János Kádár  

(b. 26 May 1912, d. 6 July 1989).Hungarian dictator 1956–89Early careerBorn an illegitimate child as János Czermanek in Fiume, he joined the illegal Hungarian Communist Party in 1932 and advanced to ...
Jean Moulin

Jean Moulin  

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(1899–1943),French resistance leader who, on behalf of de Gaulle and the Free French, welded the multifarious resistance groups in France into a potent fighting force.As a prefect of ...
Kempei

Kempei  

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Japanese equivalent of the military police of many armies, but they had intelligence and other security functions too. They were founded in 1881 as a branch of the army under ...

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