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Mahatma Gandhi

(1869—1948) political leader and religious and social reformer

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African National Congress

African National Congress  

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(ANC) A South African political party. It was established in Bloemfontein in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress by a Zulu Methodist minister, J. W. Dube. In 1914 he led a deputation ...
ahimsa

ahimsa  

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Religion
In the Hindu, Buddhist, and Jainist tradition, respect for all living things and avoidance of violence towards others. The word comes from Sanskrit, from a ‘non-, without’ + hiṃsā ‘violence’.
Amritsar massacre

Amritsar massacre  

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History
(13 April 1919)A massacre of unarmed supporters of Indian self‐government by British troops in the city of Amritsar, Punjab. Indian discontent against the British had been mounting as a result of the ...
anti-imperialism

anti-imperialism  

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The Second World War is widely believed to have encouraged the forces of anti-imperialism within the international system at large and undermined the viability of the various European colonial ...
āśram(a)

āśram(a)  

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Religion
Probably originally a term for a hermitage in which brahmin householders practised their religious life beyond the village, it came to be applied more widely to the residence of any ascetic, or group ...
Bartholomeus De Ligt

Bartholomeus De Ligt  

Bartholomeus De Ligt (1918–1939) was born in Schalkwijk in the center of the Netherlands on 17 July 1883, the son of an orthodox Protestant minister. Rather early, De Ligt drifted ...
Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza  

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Philosophy
 (1632–77) Leading Dutch-Jewish philosopher,banned by the Portuguese Jewish community in 1656, probably because of his criticisms of the Scriptures (but possibly because of a financial dispute with ...
Bhagavadgita

Bhagavadgita  

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Religion
A sacred Hindu poem composed between the 2nd century bc and the 2nd century ad and incorporated into the Mahabharata. Presented as a dialogue between the Kshatriya prince Arjuna and his divine ...
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar  

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Religion
(1893–1956)Indian leader of the Untouchables (the lowest group in the caste system). He led the agitation for their constitutional rights in the 1930s and when Mahatma Gandhi went on a fast against ...
Cesar Chavez

Cesar Chavez  

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(b. Yuma, Arizona, 31 Mar. 1927; d. San Luis, Arizona, 23 Apr. 1993)US; labour organizer and Hispanic political activist Chavez became a migrant labourer at age 10 and was entirely self-educated. An ...
Chakravarti Rajagopalachariar

Chakravarti Rajagopalachariar  

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History
(1878–1972)Indian nationalist politician. He became a close associate of Mohandas Gandhi and was imprisoned on several occasions for non-cooperation with the British. Himself a Hindu, he was tolerant ...
civil Disobedience

civil Disobedience  

The political tactic of disobeying a law deliberately, in order to bring about some change. The disobedience should ideally be public, non-violent, and committed by activists willing to face the ...
Commonweal Collection

Commonweal Collection  

The Commonweal Collection is a unique peace resource based in Britain: a library of more than eleven thousand books, pamphlets, and videos and 150 periodicals and journals. These resources and ...
Congress of Racial Equality

Congress of Racial Equality  

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), one of the most important national organizations of the post-World War II African American freedom movements, was founded by an interracial group of pacifists ...
Constructive Conflicts

Constructive Conflicts  

Conflicts are sometimes regarded as inherently disruptive and destructive and necessarily painful. Indeed, many conflicts are conducted very destructively and with harmful consequences for most ...
Contemporary Peace and Nonviolence Movements in Asia

Contemporary Peace and Nonviolence Movements in Asia  

The notion of “peace movement” is not unproblematic since “peace” can be defined restrictively (as no war or no direct violence) or expansively (as no direct, structural, and cultural violence ...
Dalit

Dalit  

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Religion
The self-designation of members of a 20th-century social and political movement, comprised of those known by others as ‘untouchables’, ‘outcastes’,‘scheduled castes’, or, in the case of M. K. Gāndhī, ...
Development and Peace

Development and Peace  

Combining peacebuilding with development is a strategy for nurturing nonviolent systems of human security and the growth of human capacity. Those with these objectives see conflict as an opportunity ...
Edwin Arnold

Edwin Arnold  

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Literature
(1832–1904)British translator and playwright who produced a metrical translation of the Bhagavadgītā, called The Song Celestial (1885). This was the version through which M. K. Gāndhī first became ...
Eminent Person Mediation

Eminent Person Mediation  

Mediation is a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) that aims to assist two or more disputants in reaching an agreement. Eminent person mediation is the attempt to resolve conflict ...

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