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Galileo Galilei

(1564—1642) Italian astronomer and physicist

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acoustic

acoustic  

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Music
(ă-koo-stik)of or relating to sound or the sense of hearing. a. nerve see cochlear nerve. a. neuroma see (vestibular) schwannoma.
Adone

Adone  

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Literature
(1623).Marino's most ambitious work, a vast epic without feats of arms, in twenty cantos of ottava rima. Reacting against the classicizing epic of Torquato Tasso and the moral preoccupations ...
Alessandro Marchetti

Alessandro Marchetti  

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Literature
(1633–1714).Tuscan scientist and man of letters. Being a lifelong anti-Aristotelian did not prevent his holding chairs of philosophy and mathematics at Pisa (1660–1714), where he continued Galileo's ...
Archimedes

Archimedes  

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(c. 287–212 bc),Greek mathematician and inventor, of Syracuse. He is famous for his discovery of Archimedes' principle, a law stating that a body totally or partially immersed in a fluid is subject ...
Areopagitica

Areopagitica  

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Literature
A tract championing freedom of the press by John Milton, published in 1644. The title imitates the Areopagiticus of the Greek orator Isocrates (436–338 bc). Attempting (unsuccessfully) to persuade ...
Aristotelianism

Aristotelianism  

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Philosophy
Aristotle's influence originally survived through his own school, the Lyceum. His works were collected and edited by Andronicus of Rhodes, and commentaries continued until Justinian closed the pagan ...
art and science

art and science  

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Have been interdependent in highly creative ways since the fifteenth century. Artists have utilized scientific and mathematical principles since the popularization of perspective in Leon Battista ...
astronomy

astronomy  

Until 1582, the need for Calendar reform was a significant spur to astronomy. Astronomers' reactions to the publication of the Copernican theory (1543) were at first rather friendly (see Rheticus ...
ballistics

ballistics  

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The study of the flight of projectiles, especially those that have a parabolic flight path from one point on the earth's surface to another.
barometer

barometer  

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An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure, which is used in making weather forecasts. The two most common types are the aneroid barometer and the mercury barometer.
Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal  

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Literature
(1623–1662) French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopherPascal was the son of a respected mathematician and a local administrator in Clermont-Ferrand, France. Early in life Pascal ...
Bonaventura Cavalieri

Bonaventura Cavalieri  

(1598–1647)Italian mathematician known for his method of ‘indivisibles’ for calculating areas and volumes. In his method, an area is thought of as composed of lines and a volume as composed of areas. ...
Cesare Cremonini

Cesare Cremonini  

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Literature
(c. 1550–1631)was a leading Aristotelian philosopher at Padua University during the time of Galileo and Paolo Beni, and a friend of Torquato Tasso, Pigna, and Francesco Patrizi the Younger. ...
children's understanding of the physical world

children's understanding of the physical world  

Most adults take it for granted that the physical world is composed of objects and surfaces that are governed by certain invariant laws. Even the most primitive societies understand some ...
Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens  

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(1629–95) Dutch astronomer and physicist,who worked at the Academy of Science in Paris from 1666 to 1681. Returning to The Hague, his birthplace, in 1657, he designed the first pendulum clock and ...
Christoph Clavius

Christoph Clavius  

(1537–1612),German mathematician and astronomer, born in Bamberg. He entered the Jesuit Order in 1555, studied in Coimbra and became professor of mathematics at the Order's Collegio Romano. Clavius ...
Christoph Scheiner

Christoph Scheiner  

(1573–1650)Germanscholar and astronomer. In 1611, with the aid of a telescope he built himself, he became one of several independent discoverers of sunspots (the others included Galileo, who unjustly ...
Cimento, Accademia del

Cimento, Accademia del  

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Literature
With the Accademia dei Lincei, one of the two most important scientific academies in 17th-c. Italy. Never as organized as the Lincei had been, it began informally in Florence in ...
classification of psychiatric disorders

classification of psychiatric disorders  

Historical aspectsAdvances in classification have made important contributions to the progress of physical, biological, and even the human sciences. Kepler, Tycho Brahe, and Galileo laid the ...
clocks

clocks  

The usual instrument for telling time in antiquity was the sundial. This employed the shadow of a pointer cast on a surface marked with lines indicating the seasonal hours (one seasonal hour was 1/12 ...

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