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Galen

(129—199) Greek physician

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Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al- Razi

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al- Razi  

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(d. ca. 925)Persian scientist, physician, and Platonist philosopher, known in the West as Rhazes. Focused on expansion of empirical medical knowledge and practical procedures for treatment, rather ...
addiction

addiction  

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(ă-dik-shŏn)a state of dependence produced either by the habitual taking of drugs or by regularly engaging in certain behaviours (e.g. gambling). See also alcoholism, tolerance.
Aetios of Amida

Aetios of Amida  

Physician; born Amida, fl. ca.530–60 in Alexandria and Constantinople. Aetios compiled a 16-book encyclopedia of medicine, traditionally called the Tetrabiblon from its division into four sections. ...
Aëtius

Aëtius  

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Of Amida, physician, fl. c. ad 530–60 in Alexandria (1) and Constantinople. He wrote an extant medical encyclopaedia, called the Tetrabiblon from its division into four sections. Beginning with a ...
Agathinus

Agathinus  

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(RE 8; Suppls. 1, 3)a Spartan doctor of the 1st cent. ad, associated with the medical sect of the Pneumatists. He was a pupil of Athenaeus (3) of Attaleia ...
age-related medical care

age-related medical care  

In his Aphorisms (1.2), a major source of medical learning, Hippocrates urged the practitioner to take into account the patient’s age as a crucial variable. Different ages were susceptible to ...
Alexander of Tralles

Alexander of Tralles  

Physician; born Tralles 525, died Rome 605. According to Agathias (Agath. 5:6.3–6), Alexander was one of five prominent sons of a physician named Stephen; most famous of the brothers was ...
Alhazen

Alhazen  

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(c.965–1038) Arabian scientistBorn in Basra (now in Iraq), Alhazen was one of the most original scientists of his time. About a hundred works are attributed to him; the main one was translated into ...
Amarantus

Amarantus  

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Of Alexandria (1) (1st–2nd cent. ad), an older contemporary of Galen (Galen 14. 208; Athenaeus 8. 343 f.), was the author of a commentary on Theocritus (Etymologicum Magnum 156. 30 ...
anaesthesia

anaesthesia  

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Strictly, the loss of feeling, but generally used for the techniques of pain relief using anaesthetics prior to surgery.
anatomical theaters

anatomical theaters  

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Since antiquity dissection has been performed on animals in two radically different ways: as a private practice of enquiry and as a public spectacle. In his Anatomical Procedures, written in ...
anatomy

anatomy  

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The study of the structure of living organisms, especially of their internal parts by means of dissection and microscopical examination. Compare morphology.
Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius  

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(1514–64)Belgian physician and anatomist, who was a professor at Padua for six years before becoming a physician to the Habsburg court. He is remembered for producing in 1538–43 definitive text and ...
animals in research

animals in research  

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Animals are widely used in the biomedical sciences, for purposes ranging from studying the functions of human and animal bodies and the nature of disease, to toxicological testing to assess ...
Antiquity

Antiquity  

The Greco-Roman heritage was a powerful tradition, which, together with that of the Bible, influenced Byz. culture. From antiquity Byz. inherited the Greek Language, the system of education, Roman ...
Antonius Musa

Antonius Musa  

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(RE 79)physician to Augustus whom he cured of a grave illness (Suetonius Divus Augustus 59). Pliny the Elder links him with Themison and his hydropathic therapies may place him ...
Apollinarius

Apollinarius  

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(RE ‘Apollinaris’ 12),astronomer (fl. ?1st cent. ad). From references in Galen, Vettius Valens, and others, he appears to have been one of the most important figures in Greek astronomy ...
apoplexy

apoplexy  

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An obsolete medical term referring to a sudden loss of consciousness and paralysis, probably due to cerebral haemorrhage. Now generally used to mean a state of extreme agitation or rage.
Arab medicine

Arab medicine  

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The contribution of Arabic medicine to the evolution of medical knowledge is immense. Arab conquests in the 7th century came at a time when the Greco-Roman civilization was plunging deep ...
Arabic medicine in the Latin West

Arabic medicine in the Latin West  

Medical texts had been written in Arabic in the Islamic world by Christian, Jewish, and Muslim doctors from the late 8th century onwards. The earliest translations of these medical works ...

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