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Adolf Daucher

Adolf Daucher  

(c.1460–1523/4) and(c.1485–after 1538),German sculptors in Augsburg who worked in the service of the Fugger family. Adolf's best-known work is the high altar of the Annenkirche in Annaberg-Buchholz; ...
Albert of Brandenburg

Albert of Brandenburg  

(1490–1545), elector of the Holy Roman Empire, archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg, and administrator of Halberstadt.He was the younger son (b. 28 June 1490) of John Cicero, elector of ...
Augsburg

Augsburg  

(city, bishopric) Attested since the 8th century on the site of Roman Augusta Vindelicorum. A document of 1156 confirms the bishop’s lordship, conditioned by the citizens’ community. An imperial city ...
banking, finance, and taxation

banking, finance, and taxation  

Medieval financial and fiscal institutions owed little to ancient precedents, but were produced by the distinctive social, political, and economic features of medieval Europe. Medieval business ...
Banská Bystrica

Banská Bystrica  

*Copper mining town in medieval northern Hungary. Refounded by German (probably Thuringian) settlers on the estate of Zvolen castle (Zólyom, Sohl), it received a charter from King Béla IV in ...
Bavarian State Library, Munich

Bavarian State Library, Munich  

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Founded in 1558, when Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria acquired the collection of the orientalist Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter (1506–57) for the court library of the Wittelsbach family. In 1571, the ...
Charles V

Charles V  

(1500–58)Holy Roman Emperor (1519–56) and (as Charles I) King of Spain (1516–56). The son of Philip I (the Handsome) and Joanna of Spain, and grandson of Emperor Maximilian I, Charles came to the ...
Elias Holl

Elias Holl  

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(1573–1646).Born in Augsburg, he became the leading Renaissance architect in Germany after a visit to Italy (1600–1). He was responsible for the city of Augsburg's official buildings from 1602, ...
Eugen Ortner

Eugen Ortner  

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Literature
(Glaishammer nr. Nuremberg, 1890–1947, Traunstein),a schoolteacher and journalist, devoted himself to authorship from 1928. His plays include Meier Helmbrecht (1928) and Jud Süß (1933), and among his ...
Francesco Balducci Pegolotti

Francesco Balducci Pegolotti  

Florentine merchant, employee of the Company of the Bardi ca.1310–ca.1340, politician, “banner bearer” in 1331, and “banner bearer of Justice” in 1346; born Florence before 1290, died after 1347. ...
Friedrich Sylburg

Friedrich Sylburg  

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(1536–96),German classical scholar, born near Marburg. He lived and taught in Heidelberg, and edited classical texts, notably all of Aristotle and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (the rhetor and historian ...
German architecture

German architecture  

The late Gothic (Spätgotik) architecture of late fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Germany took different forms in northern and southern Germany. In north Germany the preferred building material was ...
Germany

Germany  

The modern state of Germany is the descendant of the German Empire (Deutsches Reich) of the nineteenth century and of the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806), which included areas such as ...
Hans the Younger Kels

Hans the Younger Kels  

(fl. 1546–c.1570),German woodcutter who worked in Augsburg for the Fugger family. The doors and door-cases executed for Schloss Donauwörth (now the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich) in 1546 are ...
Hans von Aachen

Hans von Aachen  

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(1552–1615).Much-travelled German artist who worked mainly in Italy and Bohemia, where he was one of the foremost artists at the court of Emperor Rudolf II at Prague. After training ...
Hartmann Schedel

Hartmann Schedel  

(1440–1514),German humanist, born on 13 February 1440 in Nuremberg and educated at the University of Leipzig (1456–60). In 1563 he moved to Padua, where he studied medicine; he returned ...
Heidelberger Liederhandschrift, Große

Heidelberger Liederhandschrift, Große  

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Literature
Formerly known as the Manessische Liederhandschrift, is a MS. of large format, containing poems by 140 poets, with 138 full-page illustrations giving imaginary portraits of the authors. It is ...
Hieronymus Wolf

Hieronymus Wolf  

(1516–80),German humanist scholar. He was born in Oettingen and studied under Melanchthon and Camerarius. In 1551 he became secretary and librarian to the Fugger family in Augsburg, and from ...
Höchstetter family

Höchstetter family  

German dynasty of bankers and merchants in Augsburg, where they became members of the patrician class in the early fifteenth century. By the beginning of the sixteenth century the Höchstetter ...
Hubert Gerhard

Hubert Gerhard  

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(c. 1545–  before 1621).Dutch sculptor who worked in Germany and Austria. He may have trained in Florence in the circle of Giambologna, by whose Mannerist style he was heavily ...

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