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Sigmund Freud

(1856—1939) founder of psychoanalysis

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aggression

aggression  

Behaviour in an animal that serves to intimidate or injure another animal, but that is not connected with predation.
agnosia

agnosia  

Originally Sigmund Freud used the term agnosia to mean loss of perception. It is now applied to disorders whereby the patient cannot interpret sensory information correctly even though the sense ...
Alexander Romanovich Luria

Alexander Romanovich Luria  

(1902–77).Soviet psychologist, probably the only one to become generally known outside the USSR after the Second World War. Born in Kazan of Jewish extraction, Luria was educated at the ...
Alfred Adler

Alfred Adler  

(1870–1937)Austrian psychiatrist who founded a school of thought based on the psychology of the individual and introduced the concept of the inferiority feeling (later called inferiority ...
ambivalence

ambivalence  

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n. (in psychology) the condition of holding opposite feelings (such as love and hate) for the same person or object. This can cause relationship difficulties and pathological grief reactions.
anaesthesia

anaesthesia  

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Strictly, the loss of feeling, but generally used for the techniques of pain relief using anaesthetics prior to surgery.
André Breton

André Breton  

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Literature
(1896–1966)French poet.Breton was born in Tinchebray, Orne. His early involvement with the dadaists revealed itself in such works as Mont de piété (1919); in the same year he co-founded the ...
Anna Freud

Anna Freud  

(1895–1982)Austrianpsychoanalyst and youngest daughter of the founder of psychoanalysisSigmund Freud. Close to her father, she recounted her dreams to him from a young age (many of which are analysed ...
Arno Schmidt

Arno Schmidt  

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Literature
(Hamburg, 1914–79, Celle),lived from the age of 14 in Görlitz (Silesia), and in 1937 took up an office job in a textile factory in Greifenberg. But his true interests ...
asylums

asylums  

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History
For the insane had medieval origins in Britain, with London's Bethlem Hospital (Bedlam) the most famous. Its shortened name passed into the language as befitted a frame of mind in which madness was ...
Austria

Austria  

Is usually mentioned in a negative context in Shakespeare's plays, and Vienna is the morally perverted setting for the action in Measure for Measure. In the city of Graz, as ...
Austrian art

Austrian art  

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Has been shaped by the country's position astride one of the main routes between the north and Italy, and on the fringe of eastern Europe and the Balkans. Until the ...
behaviour therapy

behaviour therapy  

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(bi-hayv-yer)treatment based on the belief that psychological problems are the products of faulty learning and not the symptoms of an underlying disease. See also aversion therapy, conditioning, ...
bereavement

bereavement  

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Loss of a relative or friend through death; the grief reaction that often follows such a loss. [From Old English bereafian to plunder]
blushing

blushing  

Uncontrollable reddening of the cheeks, and sometimes the ears and neck, is associated with embarrassment and guilt. Charles Darwin made the most interesting suggestion: that blushing is a warning ...
Carl Gustav Jung

Carl Gustav Jung  

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Literature
(1875–1961)Swiss psychiatrist who founded analytical psychology and who proposed the concepts of extrovert and introvert personalities, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. He also developed ...
Carl Spitteler

Carl Spitteler  

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Literature
(Liestal nr. Basel, 1845–1924, Lucerne),son of a Swiss civil servant, studied law and theology at Basel and Heidelberg universities. In 1871, through the mediation of his father's friend Colonel ...
Carl Wernicke

Carl Wernicke  

(1848–1905).German neurologist and psychiatrist who qualified at the University of Breslau and returned to it many years later as a professor after spending several years in Berlin. He trained ...
Caroline Blackwood

Caroline Blackwood  

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Literature
(1931–1996),novelist. Born in Co. Down, daughter of the 4th Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, she married Lucien Freud, and later Robert Lowell. Her first novel, The Step-daughter (1976), is ...
catharsis

catharsis  

The process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed emotions. The notion of ‘release’ through drama derives from Aristotle's Poetics.The word comes from Greek katharsis, ...

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