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Frederick II

(1194—1250)

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Aachen

Aachen  

(town, palace) West central German town, known for its hot springs. Aachen’s significance is linked to Charlemagne, who created a Carolingian palace complex there, where he was buried. Successive ...
Abitur

Abitur  

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The German examination equivalent to the General Certificate of Education Advanced Level. It is often held up by educators in the United Kingdom as a model to be emulated as it offers the academic ...
Acht und Bann

Acht und Bann  

A link between Acht (outlawry) and Bann (excommunication) was created when Frederick II barred excommunicates from royal courts (1220) and forbade inhabitants of royal towns (1231/32), then of the ...
A.E.I.O.U.

A.E.I.O.U.  

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Abbreviation for Austriae est imperare orbi universo (it falls to Austria to rule over the whole globe), motto of the Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III. An alternative Latin version is Austria ...
Agnes of Bohemia

Agnes of Bohemia  

Foundress and first abbess of the Franciscan (poor Clare) nuns (d. c.1282). A descendant of Duke Wenceslaus, daughter of Ottokar I king of Bohemia and his Hungarian royal wife, Agnes from early ...
Albert Behaim

Albert Behaim  

(c.1180–c.1260) German cleric, born and educated near Niederaltaich, Bavaria;*canon in Passau from 1212; went to Rome for the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, remaining there in a diplomatic post. ...
Albert of Behaim

Albert of Behaim  

(before 1200–c.1260)Albert of Behaim or Bohemus, a Bavarian curialist, is known mainly as the legate of Gregory IX at the time of the excommunication of Frederick II, in 1239. ...
Albertano of Brescia

Albertano of Brescia  

(c.1200–c.1270) Judge, notary, scholar.Countering Italian cities’ factionalism, Albertano sought solutions in personal moral development and civic cooperation. He was among the first to look to ...
Alexander IV, Pope

Alexander IV, Pope  

(c.1185–1261)Reginald was a son of Philip, lord of Jenne, with possessions at Subiaco and in the diocese of Anagni. According to Matthew Paris, he was the nephew of Pope ...
Alfonso X

Alfonso X  

(1221–84)King of Castile and León (1252–84). His reign was a contrast between the failure of his political ambitions and his scholarly success as a law‐giver. He spent fruitless years trying to ...
Amalie Sieveking

Amalie Sieveking  

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(Hamburg, 1794–1859, Hamburg),the daughter of a senator and a deaconess who displayed exemplary courage in caring for victims of the cholera epidemic which swept the country in 1831. She ...
Anjou

Anjou  

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French dynasty implanted in Italy by Charles I (1227–85), youngest son of Louis VIII. Supporting papal claims against the Hohenstaufen [see frederick ii], Charles defeated Manfredi at Benevento ...
Apulia

Apulia  

In Roman times, Apulia covered the north of modern Puglia and the neighbouring areas: the south of the region was called Calabria, a name that shifted during the early Middle ...
army

army  

Long before the Norman Conquest, military obligation seems to have divided into two basic forms. One was an obligation for service by all adult males, established in English law as the militia by the ...
Arnoldscher Prozeß

Arnoldscher Prozeß  

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A famous lawsuit in Prussia under Frederick the Great (see Friedrich II, König). Johann Arnold of Pommerzig was a miller, who, it was alleged, failed to pay his rent. He ...
August III

August III  

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King of Poland and, as Friedrich August II, Kurfürst von Sachsen (Dresden, 1696–1763, Dresden), was elected in 1733 king of Poland. He was the only legitimate son of Augustus the ...
Ayyubids

Ayyubids  

A dynasty of independent Sunni rulers, founded by Saladin (in Arabic Salāh al-Dīn ibn Ayyūb), which reigned in Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia and Yemen from 1171 to 1260, ensuring the ...
Battle of Cortenuova

Battle of Cortenuova  

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The year 1237 saw a renewed struggle between the Holy Roman Empire and the Italian city-states as the emperor Frederick II attempted to establish his control over northern Italy. Facing ...
Battle of Frankfurt

Battle of Frankfurt  

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In the wake of the deposition of Emperor Frederick II by Pope Innocent IV in 1245, the kingdom of Germany was divided between supporters of the papacy and those who ...
battle of Kunersdorf

battle of Kunersdorf  

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(12 August 1759), in which the combined Russian and Austrian forces under Laudon inflicted a heavy defeat upon Friedrich II of Prussia (see Siebenjähriger Krieg). Kunersdorf lies close to ...

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