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Alvin Ward Gouldner

Alvin Ward Gouldner  

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(1920 –1980)An American sociologist and critical theorist who diagnosed the “crisis” of post–World War II functionalism and explored the potential for radical politics in the modern era. Gouldner was ...
attitude

attitude  

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The way in which a person views and evaluates something or someone. Attitudes determine whether people like or dislike things – and therefore how they behave towards them.Attitude is traditionally ...
authoritarian personality

authoritarian personality  

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Title of 1940s study by Berkeley researchers into the psychological origins of anti‐Semitism. The term was used to refer to an ‘ethnocentric’ personality pattern characterized by traits such as ...
base and superstructure

base and superstructure  

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Karl Marx's metaphor for the relationship between material production and economic relations (the base) and the political, legal, and cultural dimensions of society (the superstructure). Marx's key ...
bourgeoisie

bourgeoisie  

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The commercial class that emerged during the feudal era and that became the principal protagonist of the transition to capitalism and democratic rule. The bourgeoisie began primarily as merchants but ...
civil society

civil society  

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The set of intermediate associations which are neither the state nor the (extended) family; civil society therefore includes voluntary associations and firms and other corporate bodies. The term has ...
commodity

commodity  

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A standardized good, which is traded in bulk and whose units are interchangeable. Commodities are mostly the output of the primary sector, that is, agriculture and mining, or semi-processed products. ...
community

community  

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Many sociological and anthropological definitions exist, but most tend to privilege some combination of small-scale, relative boundedness, strong affective ties, traditionalism, and face-to-face ...
consumer culture

consumer culture  

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Media studies
See also advertising cultures; taste.1. A pejorative reference to modern Western society in terms of its domination by the marketing and consumption of goods and services (see also promotional ...
consumption

consumption  

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1 The process of using resources to satisfy human wants or needs.2 In water supply, the fraction of the water that is not available for use by humans.
contradiction

contradiction  

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[Ge]A term used by Karl Marx to refer to mutually antagonistic tendencies in a society.
critical theory

critical theory  

1. Theories associated with the neo-Marxist Frankfurt school which involve the ideological analysis of society and culture. Influenced by Marxist theory and Freudian psychoanalytic theory.2. Any ...
cultural studies

cultural studies  

The critical analysis of the texts and practices of everyday life in contemporary society: an interdisciplinary enterprise involving both the humanities and the social sciences. Its territory (in the ...
culture industry

culture industry  

1. For Adorno and the critical theorists of the Frankfurt school, the mass-media entertainment industry and commercialized popular culture, which they saw as primarily concerned with producing not ...
David Riesman

David Riesman  

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(1909 –2002)Primarily a sociologist, Reisman was one of the most influential analysts of American culture in the 1950s and early 1960s. He is best known for his popular and ...
desublimation

desublimation  

Herbert Marcuse's term for the process whereby art (in the strictest sense) is rendered banal and powerless. In One-Dimensional Man (1964), his million-selling account of the changes to society ...
diversion function

diversion function  

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Media studies
In relation to general types of use by individuals of the mass media, a single medium, a media genre, or specific media content, usage for purposes such as stimulation (escape from boredom, routine, ...
ego psychology

ego psychology  

A school of psychoanalysis based on the analysis of the ego, founded in 1939 by the Austrian-born US psychoanalyst Heinz Hartmann (1894–1970), including the US-based German psychologist Ernst Kris ...
Enlightenment Studies

Enlightenment Studies  

The history of Enlightenment studies has been shaped by contests over the definition and especially the political meanings given to the term “Enlightenment.” From its very beginning in the 1690s ...
entertainment function

entertainment function  

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Subject:
Media studies
A function of both interpersonal and mass communication in which the sender seeks to please and the receiver is expected to enjoy. For Schramm, entertainment is one of the key functions of ...

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