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Franks

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Adrian I, pope

Adrian I, pope  

(died 795)A Roman, Adrian I was consecrated on 9 Feb 772 and died on Christmas day 795. His was certainly one of the most important pontificates, from a politico-religious ...
Agathias

Agathias  

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(‘lawyer’), historian and poet in Constantinople, c.ad 532–c.580. A native of Myrina in Asia Minor, where his father was a rhetor, he was educated at Alexandria and Constantinople, where he later ...
Aistulf

Aistulf  

(died 756)Aistulf was proclaimed King of the Lombards (and reigned 749–756) at Milan, while Pavia was still held by his brother and predecessor Ratchis (744–749), who retired to Monte Cassino.[...]
Alamanni

Alamanni  

[CP]A confederation of several Germanic tribes who amalgamated in the 3rd century ad. In c.ad 260 they conquered the Roman frontier lands between the Rhine and the Danube, and remained there, despite ...
Anjou

Anjou  

A former province of western France, on the Loire. It was an English possession from 1154, when it was inherited by Henry II as count of Anjou, until 1204, when it was lost to France by King John; it ...
Annales Regni Francorum

Annales Regni Francorum  

Written in the chapel of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious (814–40), present a detailed but slanted—particularly by omission—record of royal activities (741–829). Writing probably began sometime ...
Aquitaine

Aquitaine  

A region and former province of SW France, on the Bay of Biscay, centred on Bordeaux. A province of the Roman Empire and a medieval duchy, it became an English possession by the marriage of Eleanor ...
Aragon

Aragon  

An autonomous region of NE Spain, bounded on the north by the Pyrenees and on the east by Catalonia and Valencia; capital, Saragossa. Formerly an independent kingdom, which was conquered in the 5th ...
Arles

Arles  

(city, kingdom) Situated at the mouth of the Rhône delta in southern France, Arles was an important administrative centre in the late Roman Empire. After a period of decline under ...
Augusta Treverorum

Augusta Treverorum  

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Civitas‐capital of the Treveri, developed from a settlement around a fort established under Augustus to guard a crossing of the Moselle. In the early empire it became the seat of the imperial ...
barbarian

barbarian  

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While we associate Classical culture primarily with emphasis on citizenship (membership of a polis), Classical Greek literature also assigns considerable importance to defining a common Greek ...
Barbarian Laws

Barbarian Laws  

Until their settlement in the Roman Empire, the German peoples followed oral customary laws. The establishment of the Romano-barbarian kingdoms made necessary the revision of common Roman law and the ...
Barcelona

Barcelona  

The Iberian tribe of the Laetani were the earliest known population of the site of Barcelona. In the 3rd c. BC, the Carthaginians founded Barcino there, perhaps named from the ...
Batavi

Batavi  

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A Germanic people, living on the lower Rhine. Though an offshoot of the Chatti, they helped Drusus against the Germans in 12 bc, and frequently thereafter provided military support for ...
Battle of Roncesvalles

Battle of Roncesvalles  

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A battle which took place in 778 at a mountain pass in the Pyrenees, near the village of Roncesvalles in northern Spain. The rearguard of Charlemagne's army was attacked by the Basques and massacred; ...
Bavaria

Bavaria  

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History
A south German duchy ruled by the Wittelsbach family (see Appendix 1) from 1180 to 1918. From 1253 to 1504 the duchy was repeatedly partitioned, initially into Upper Bavaria and ...
Bohemia

Bohemia  

A region forming the western part of the Czech Republic, originally a Slavic kingdom, later subject to Austrian rule.In Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale (1610–11), Perdita is abandoned as an infant on ...
Brittany

Brittany  

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Literature
Former duchy and province of north-western France on the Armorican peninsula, coextensive with modern French Departments of Finistére, Côte d'Armor, Morbihan, Ille-et-Vilaine, and Loire-Atlantique ...
Bructeri

Bructeri  

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A Germanic people, living north of the Lippe in the neighbourhood of modern Münster. A powerful people, they were allies of the Cherusci, whom they assisted in resisting the invasions ...
Burgundians

Burgundians  

A series of age-old migrations led the Burgundians from their native Scandinavia all through Germany, from the shores of Pomerania (late 2nd c. BC) to the banks of the Rhine ...

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