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four noble truths

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Aśoka

Aśoka  

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Religion
Emperor of India c. 269–232 bc, who was converted to Buddhism and established it as the state religion.Asoka pillar a pillar with four lions on the capital, built by the Emperor Asoka at Sarnath in ...
Aṣṭangika-mārga

Aṣṭangika-mārga  

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Religion
(Skt.; Pāli, aṭṭangika-magga).The eightfold path which leads, in Buddhism, to release from dukkha (transience and the suffering involved in it). It is the last of the Four Noble Truths ...
avidyā

avidyā  

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Religion
(Skt.; Pāli, avijjā).Ignorance; in Buddhism it refers specifically to ignorance about the workings of karma.the Four Noble Truths, and the Three Jewels (triratna). Avidyā is the root cause of ...
bodhi

bodhi  

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(Skt.; Pāli).Term which literally means ‘awakening’, but which is commonly translated as ‘enlightenment’. It denotes the awakening to supreme knowledge, as experienced by the Buddha as he sat under ...
Buddha

Buddha  

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Religion
A title given to the founder of Buddhism, Siddartha Gautama (c. 563–c. 460 bc). Born an Indian prince in what is now Nepal, he renounced wealth and family to become an ascetic, and after achieving ...
Buddhism

Buddhism  

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Western term which became established in popular usage in the 1830s to refer to the teachings of the Buddha. There is no direct equivalent for this term in Sanskrit or Pāli. Instead, indigenous ...
cakra

cakra  

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Religion
1 A symbol, probably derived from the sun, of the Universal Ruler's (cakravartin's) dominion over the entire earth. As displayed on the palms of his hands (where it may be associated with Viṣṇu's ...
darśana

darśana  

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Religion
1 (‘looking at’, ‘viewing’) Derived from the Sanskrit root ‘dṛś’ (‘to see’, ‘to look at’), darśana, in the form of the meeting of the devotee's and the (iconic) deity's eyes, is both an act of ...
Dharmacakra

Dharmacakra  

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Religion
(Skt., wheel of the law; Pāli, dhamma-cakka).Symbol of the Buddhist teachings represented in the form of a wheel usually with eight spokes which represent the Eightfold Path. The teachings, like a ...
duḥkha

duḥkha  

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Religion
An existential given for Sāṃkhya-Yoga and other systems intent on providing the individual with a path to freedom from duḥkha and its effects. Analysis of the nature of duḥkha is a major element in ...
Dukkha

Dukkha  

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Religion
(Pāli, Skt.).The second of the Three Marks of Existence in Buddhism and the subject of the Four Noble Truths. There is no satisfactory equivalent to the word in English ...
eightfold path

eightfold path  

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Religion
In Buddhism, the path to nirvana, comprising eight aspects in which an aspirant must become practised.
evil

evil  

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Religion
Buddhism has no concept of evil as a cosmic force or objective reality. The nearest it comes to this is the mythological figure of Māra.the Buddhist ‘devil’. However, it has much to say about evil in ...
first Sermon

first Sermon  

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Religion
Of the Buddha, preached at Benares. It expounded the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path (aṣṭangika-mārga). It is known as ‘the first turning of the dharmacakra (wheel of dharma)’: see DHAMMA ...
Harivarman

Harivarman  

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Religion
(c.4th c. ce).A Buddhist monk from central India.sometimes thought to be a member of the Bahuśrutīya subschool of the Mahāsaṃghikas.although his writings seem straightforwardly Sautrāntika. Reputedly ...
jñāna

jñāna  

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Religion
Frequently employed in the sense of gnosis or ‘realization’ (i.e. of ultimate reality, or one's true nature), as opposed to conventional or discursive knowledge. Such ‘knowledge’ is considered free ...
moha

moha  

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(Pāli, Skt.).‘Delusion’, which prevents discernment of truth in Hinduism and Buddhism. In the latter, it is one of the three ‘unwholesome roots’ (akuśalamūla) which, together with craving (lobha)—or ...
nirodha

nirodha  

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Religion
(Pāli, cessation).Name given to the third noble truth concerned with the cessation of suffering (duḥkha). This states that, by putting an end to greed, hatred, and delusion, an end to suffering can ...
samsara

samsara  

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Religion
In Hindu and Buddhist philosophy, the ‘bondage of life, death, and rebirth’: the cycle of birth and rebirth dictated by karma. Release comes only with the attainment of true knowledge, requiring ...
satya

satya  

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Religion
(Skt.; Pāli, sacca). General term meaning ‘truth’. On the Madhyamaka notion of the ‘Two Truths’ (satya-dvaya), see paramārtha-satya; saṃvṛti-satya. See also four noble truths.

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