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Ableman v. Booth; United States v. Booth

Ableman v. Booth; United States v. Booth  

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Law
21 How. (62 U.S.) 506 (1859), argued 19 Jan. 1859, decided 7 Mar. 1859 by vote of 9 to 0; Taney for the Court. In the spring of 1854, Benjamin S. Garland, a slaveowner from Missouri, went to ...
Abstention Doctrine

Abstention Doctrine  

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Law
One of a number of policies adopted by the Supreme Court that allow the federal judiciary to refrain from ruling on constitutional questions. Often called the “Pullman” abstention doctrine because ...
Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis de Tocqueville  

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(1805–59)An early French sociologist who travelled to the United States between 1831 and 1832 to observe democracy at work. His classic work Democracy in America (1835–40) identifies within ...
alien

alien  

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Law
N.A person who, under the law of a particular state, is not a citizen of that state. Aliens are usually classified as resident aliens (domiciled in the host country) or transient aliens (temporarily ...
American Insurance Company v. Canter

American Insurance Company v. Canter  

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Law
1 Pet. (26 U.S.) 511 (1828), argued 8, 10, 11 Mar. 1828, decided 15 Mar. 1828 by vote of 7 to 0; Marshall for the Court. Questions of federalism were among the most difficult confronting the early ...
Antecedents To the Court

Antecedents To the Court  

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Law
English history, American colonial experience, and the operation of the national government under the Articles of Confederation provide the background for the U.S. Supreme Court authorized by Article ...
Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation  

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On 7 June 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia moved in the Second Continental Congress that the thirteen American colonies declare their independence from Great Britain, and that Congress establish ...
Australian Settlement

Australian Settlement  

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The concept of an Australian Settlement has increasingly come into use as a way of framing political history and Australian political thought. Although the range, character and significance of a ...
autonomy

autonomy  

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Free will; self-governing, ability of a person or a group to choose a course of action. Autonomy is a basic human right and is one of the principles of bioethics.
bail

bail  

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Law
N.The release by the police, magistrates' court, or Crown Court of a person held in legal custody while awaiting trial or appealing against a criminal conviction. Conditions may be imposed on a ...
Baker v. Carr

Baker v. Carr  

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Law
(USA, 1962)The first of a series of Supreme Court decisions which undermined the custom of manipulating legislative apportionments at state and federal levels for political or racial purposes. ...
Benjamin Nathan Cardozo

Benjamin Nathan Cardozo  

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Law
(1870–1938)Benjamin Cardozo was an American jurist, the most widely known and influential state court judge of his era. Although he briefly served at the end of his career on ...
bicameralism

bicameralism  

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The view that a legislative chamber should be properly composed of two houses. In the majority of states, the second or upper house has a more restricted role, for example limited to checking or ...
Carter v. Carter Coal Co.

Carter v. Carter Coal Co.  

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Subject:
Law
298 U.S. 238 (1936), argued 11, 12 Mar. 1936, decided 18 Mar. 1936 by vote of 5 to 4; Sutherland for the Court, Cardozo, Brandeis, and Stone in dissent, Hughes dissenting in part. The Carter case ...
Cases and Controversies

Cases and Controversies  

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Law
The framers of the Constitution provided, in Article III, section 2, that federal courts were to have jurisdiction only of “Cases” and “Controversies.” These two words are the origin of ...
central–local relations

central–local relations  

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In Western pluralist countries all central governments, except those in micro‐polities, confront a twofold governing dilemma: (1) how do they organize public policy delivery and control in ‘the ...
checks and balances

checks and balances  

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Counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that power in political institutions is not concentrated in the hands of particular individuals ...
Chisholm v. Georgia

Chisholm v. Georgia  

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• 2 Dall. 419 (1793)• Vote: 4–1• For the Court: seriatim opinions by Jay, Cushing, Wilson, and Blair• Dissenting: IredellDuring the American War of Independence, agents of the state government ...
Church and State

Church and State  

[This brief review is designed to provide access to the numerous articles in the encyclopedia that deal with the complex of church-state relations in the sixteenth century.] Persistent conflict over ...
Cohens v. Virginia

Cohens v. Virginia  

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• 6 Wheat. 264 (1821)• Vote: 6–0• For the Court: MarshallTwo brothers, Philip and Mendes Cohen, were charged with violating a Virginia law by selling lottery tickets within the state. ...

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