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Abbasid

Abbasid  

A member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, named after Abbas (566–652), the prophet Muhammad's uncle and founder of the dynasty.
Acre

Acre  

Ancient port on the eastern Mediterranean shore. It was lost by Byzantium to Chosroes II in 614, briefly regained, and lost to the Arabs in 638. Conquered in 1104 during ...
Aghlabids

Aghlabids  

A 9th-c. Arab dynasty, the Aghlabids governed Ifrīkiya in the name of the Abbasids, with Kairouan for capital. Rapidly becoming autonomous, the Aghlabids made Ifrīkiya the most powerful and ...
al- Maqrīzī

al- Maqrīzī  

More fully Taqī al-Dīn Abū'l-ʿAbbās al-Maqrīzī, Arab writer, teacher, jurist, and preacher; born Cairo 1364, died there 9 Feb. 1442. In the 1420s, following a multifarious public career in Egypt ...
al- QāḍīAl-nuʿmān

al- QāḍīAl-nuʿmān  

More fully ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥayyūn al-Tamīmīal- Qādī al-Nuʿmān, Arab jurist and historian of the Fāṭimids; born Tunisia ca.904, died Cairo 974. He served this dynasty's first four caliphs as ...
al- Quḍāʿī

al- Quḍāʿī  

Arab jurist, diplomat, and writer; died Fusṭāṭ, Egypt, Nov. 1062. Al-Quḍāʿī studied law and Islamic traditions (ḥadīth) in Baghdad and later became a judge in Egypt. He also performed important ...
al-Azhar

al-Azhar  

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(Arab., ‘the most resplendent’).One of the principal mosques in Cairo, also a centre of learning and later a university. It was founded in 969 ce by the Fāṭimid rulers ...
Aleppo

Aleppo  

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An ancient city in northern Syria, which was formerly an important commercial centre on the trade route between the Mediterranean and the countries of the East.
Alhacen

Alhacen  

(d. after 1039) Physicist whose contributions to optics and the scientific method are outstanding.1. Early life and travels2. Optics3. Other scientific contributions4. Influence1. Early life and ...
Amalfi

Amalfi  

A small Italian city in Campania, clinging to the rocky slopes of its peninsula dominating the bay of Salerno, Amalfi is mentioned as a bishopric in a letter of Pope ...
Andalusia

Andalusia  

Southernmost province of modern Spain whose name derives from the Arabic term for the Iberian Peninsula, much of which was under Arab-Islamic rule between 711 and 1492. This rule extended ...
art and architecture: Ayyubid

art and architecture: Ayyubid  

The Ayyubid dynasty ruled in Egypt between 1171–1250, in Syria and southeast Anatolia between 1180–1260, and in the Yemen between 1174–1229. The dynasty was established in 1169 by the Kurdish ...
Artuqid

Artuqid  

Islamic dynasty that ruled in southeast Anatolia from 1098 to 1408. The Artuqids were descendants of a Turkoman military commander in the service of the Saljuq dynasty; his family settled ...
assassins

assassins  

The Nizari branch of Ismaili Muslims at the time of the Crusades, renowned as militant fanatics and popularly supposed to use hashish before going on murder missions. The name comes (in the mid 16th ...
Ayyubids

Ayyubids  

A dynasty of independent Sunni rulers, founded by Saladin (in Arabic Salāh al-Dīn ibn Ayyūb), which reigned in Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia and Yemen from 1171 to 1260, ensuring the ...
Basil II

Basil II  

(958–1025),Byzantine emperor from 976 to 1025. Basil II’s reign, the longest of any Byzantine emperor, witnessed a number of episodes and events of enduring importance. The formal conversion in ...
Battle of Ascalon

Battle of Ascalon  

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The battle fought outside Ascalon (modern-day Tel Ashqelon in Israel) on 12 August 1099 was the first encounter in the field between crusaders and the Fatimid caliphate of Egypt, ending ...
Beirut

Beirut  

Ancient Phoenician city, a bishopric by the late 4th century, it also had a famous law school. Damaged by earthquake in 551, the city was captured by the Arabs in ...
Berber

Berber  

An indigenous person of northern and north-western Africa. Traditionally, the Berbers speak Berber languages, although most literate Berbers also speak Arabic. The Berbers are Sunni Muslims, and ...
Cairo

Cairo  

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(Arab., al-Qāhira, ‘the victorious’, but also from al-Qāhir, Mars, the city of Mars).Capital city of the Fāṭimids, established by al-Muʿizz in 969 (ah 358). It was originally called al-Manṣūriyya ...

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