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Africa — history

Africa — history  

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Some of the earliest evidence of medical practice comes from Africa. The Egyptians were well known, over 5000 years ago, for their advanced knowledge of medicine. Relics from the time ...
Agnes of Bohemia

Agnes of Bohemia  

Foundress and first abbess of the Franciscan (poor Clare) nuns (d. c.1282). A descendant of Duke Wenceslaus, daughter of Ottokar I king of Bohemia and his Hungarian royal wife, Agnes from early ...
agrarian protest

agrarian protest  

Was a distinctive feature of Irish rural society from the appearance of the Whiteboys in Co. Tipperary in 1761 to the Famine. Secrecy was protected by the administration of oaths ...
agrarianism

agrarianism  

Agrarian societies are those which combine horticulture and animal husbandry in systems of farming. Agrarianism also refers to the romanticization of the rural farm as the ideal place for family life.
agricultural labourers

agricultural labourers  

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History
The distinction between a farm labourer and a farm servant was that a servant was hired on a yearly basis from about the age of 14 and lived on the ...
Agricultural Prices

Agricultural Prices  

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Agriculture was the largest sector of the preindustrial economy, typically supporting three-quarters of the population. With incomes low, food accounted for a large share of consumption. Textiles, ...
Agricultural Risk Management

Agricultural Risk Management  

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This entry contains three subentries, a historical overview and discussions of technological price stabilization and storage.Agricultural production is highly susceptible to natural “accidents” such ...
Banquet

Banquet  

The banquet took its name from the bench (banc), which was often one with the table used for meals. It designated a collective feast. The theme of the banquet is ...
basileus

basileus  

The ruling principles of Byzantine imperial power had a dual origin: Roman, itself heir to the Alexandrian and Hellenistic tradition, and Christian. The terrestrial order being the reflection of the ...
Board of Works

Board of Works  

(Office of Public Works), established in 1831, reflecting the anxiety of British politicians to promote the economic improvement of Ireland and thus to reduce poverty and disorder. Consisting of ...
bog

bog  

[Ge]A general term often used rather indiscriminately to describe permanent wetland in which communities of plants grow on generally rather acid waterlogged ground. See blanket bog; ombrogenous bog; ...
brewing

brewing  

The process by which beer is made. Fermentation of sugars from barley grain by the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum (or S. carlsbergenesis) produces alcohol (ethanol). In the first stage ...
cereal

cereal  

[Ge]A general term covering a range of barley, wheat, oats, and rye.
Charlemagne

Charlemagne  

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History
(Latin Carolus Magnus, Charles the Great) (742–814) King of the Franks (768–814) and Holy Roman emperor (as Charles I) (800–14). He created an empire by conquering and Christianizing the Saxons ...
climate

climate  

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The characteristic pattern of weather elements in an area over a period. The weather elements include temperature, rainfall, humidity, solar insolation, wind, etc. The climate of a large area is ...
climate change

climate change  

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Subject:
History
The change in world climate patterns over time. Such change has always occurred, both on a large scale since the formation of the earth and on a smaller scale within the span of human history. For ...
cottier

cottier  

In its most distinctive sense this meant a labourer paid in land rather than cash. The cottier received from a farmer a cabin, a small plot of land sufficient to ...
Crop and Plant Diseases

Crop and Plant Diseases  

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The economic and social consequences of pests and diseases in crops have been extensive. In 1870 Ceylon (Sri Lanka) was one of the leading coffee producers in the world, with ...
Crop Failures

Crop Failures  

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In the biblical allegory, Joseph's forecast of seven years of plenty followed by seven years of drought serves as a metaphor for the vagaries of nature and the possibility that ...
crop yield

crop yield  

The amount of a crop that is harvested from a given area of land (such as a field) in a single growing season, usually expressed as yield per unit area (for example, tonnes per hectare). Also known ...

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