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amelioratio terrae

amelioratio terrae  

Medieval term for land reclamation. An initial colonizing phase of settlement extension covered Carolingian Europe in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second wave swept almost all of Europe from ...
Ancient Voyages of Exploration

Ancient Voyages of Exploration  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
The archaeological remains of the Minoan civilization on Crete date back to 3000 b.c.e., indicating that its founders had made their way across the waters between the mainland and the ...
Antarctica

Antarctica  

The fifth largest and by far the coldest of the seven continents. It is centred on the South Pole, located mostly within the Antarctic Circle, covered with ice (which in places is more than 2000 ...
Arctic

Arctic  

The area lying above 66.5° North that is dominated by the Arctic Ocean but also includes large land areas in Canada, Russia, Greenland, Scandinavia, Iceland, and Alaska. Some of the land areas, ...
Augustus

Augustus  

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(63 bc–ad 14),the first Roman emperor; also called (until 27 bc) Octavian. He was adopted by the will of his great-uncle Julius Caesar and gained supreme power by his defeat of Mark Antony in 31 bc. ...
Augustus Earle

Augustus Earle  

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History
(1793–1838),Anglo-American painter of landscape, portrait, and genre scenes. Probably the first freelance artist to tour the world [see painting, 27 and exploration, 37].Earle exhibited at the Royal ...
British Museum

British Museum  

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London. The UK's major national museum, with enormously rich and varied collections covering world history and culture: it has magnificent holdings in classical antiquities, medieval art, prints and ...
chart

chart  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
A map primarily intended for navigation, one of the earliest being the plane chart, hence plain sailing. In very general terms, two types of nautical chart are used at sea, the straightforward ...
Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus  

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Overview Page
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History
(c. 1451–1506)Genoese navigator and explorer, celebrated as the first European to discover America. His great interest was in what he called his “Enterprise to the Indies”, the search for a westward ...
Colonialism

Colonialism  

[CP]A general term referring to the period c.ad 550–900 in North America, being one of the five main cultural‐historical stages defined for the archaeology of southwestern parts of the USA. ...
Columbian Exchange.

Columbian Exchange.  

As of 1492, the Americas and Eurasia-Africa, except for occasional connections via the Bering Strait, had been separated for millions of years. During this time, organisms diverged in their evolution ...
Dirk (Thierry), counts of Holland

Dirk (Thierry), counts of Holland  

Dirk I (early 10th century) received land in fief from the Frankish king. Dirk II (d. 988) married a daughter of Arnulf ‘the Great’ of Flanders, thereby expanding his domain ...
Dutch Settlements in North America.

Dutch Settlements in North America.  

The Dutch claim to North America derived from the voyage of Henry Hudson, who in 1609 set sail in the Half Moon on behalf of the Dutch East India Company ...
Empire

Empire  

The term originates from ancient Rome, where it denoted the legal power of magistrates, and, furthermore, worldwide domination by the Roman people and emperors. Beginning in the Middle Ages it ...
English Ireland

English Ireland  

Denotes the political entity ruled by the kings of England under the title ‘lord of Ireland’ from the late 12th century until Henry VIII styled himself ‘king of Ireland’ in ...
environment

environment  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
[Ge]The total surroundings in which a human society finds itself; all the factors that in any way affect its mode of life.
Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes  

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(c.276–c.194 bc)Greekwriter on many subjects, born in modern Libya. He made the first known calculation of the Earth's circumference that was based on a scientifically sound method. According to ...
evolutionary theories

evolutionary theories  

Until well into the nineteenth century, orthodox scientific opinion understood earth's myriad life-forms to constitute a purposefully designed economy, regulated by natural laws. Christian tradition ...
Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,696 words

Exploration in antiquity was generally limited to commercial or military objectives—the Latin word exploratio means a military reconnaissance—rather than for

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

Philip J. Stern and Philip J. Stern

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,312 words
Illustration(s):
1
[This entry includes two subentries, an overview and a discussion of exploration in Africa.]Overview By most historians’ accounts, the so-called European age of exploration, discovery, or ... More

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