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Adriatic Sea

Adriatic Sea  

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(Gk. ὁ Ἀδρίας; Lat. Mare adriaticum or superum), used as an alternative to ‘Ionian Sea’ for the waters between the Balkan peninsula and Italy, and like ‘Ionian’, sometimes extended to ...
Aeneas

Aeneas  

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In classical mythology, a Trojan leader, son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and legendary ancestor of the Romans. When Troy fell to the Greeks he escaped and after wandering for many years eventually ...
alphabet

alphabet  

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1. A particular sequential arrangement of a set of letters or other graphic symbols used to write a language in which these graphemes are used to represent the basic speech sounds or phonemes.2. A ...
Appius Claudius Caecus

Appius Claudius Caecus  

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Censor 312 before holding other high office; consul 307 and 296, praetor 295: in the latter two years he fought in Etruria (see etruscans), Campania, and Samnium. In 280, now old and blind, he ...
arch

arch  

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A construction of a block of materials in a curved form used as a support, for example of a bridge, floor, or roof. The simplest arches are semicircular. Pointed arches appeared in Moorish and Gothic ...
archaeology, classical

archaeology, classical  

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The study of the material culture of ancient Greece and Rome. Epigraphy, the study of inscriptions on permanent materials, is today seen as a branch of historical rather than of archaeological ...
Arretium

Arretium  

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North-easternmost of the cities of Etruria (see Etruscans) and one of the latest founded. It is not certain when it passed under Roman rule, but in the 3rd cent. bc ...
Ar(r)uns

Ar(r)uns  

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The Latinized form of a common Etruscan praenomen, widely attested in Etruscan inscriptions in the form arnθ. A legendary Arruns appears in the Aeneid (11. 759f.) among the Etruscan allies ...
art, funerary, Roman

art, funerary, Roman  

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Early republican tombs at Rome have none of the decorative features of contemporary Etruscan funerary art (see etruscans), but by the mid to late republic some aristocratic tombs show a desire for ...
Atria

Atria  

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A coastal city in the north of the Po delta (see Padus), now nearly 20 km. (12 1/2 mi.) from the sea. From the late 6th cent. bc onwards it ...
Boii

Boii  

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Gauls who are traditionally thought to have entered Italy c.400 bc (reputedly via the Great St Bernard) and established themselves between the Po (Padus) and the Apennines, ousting Etruscans and ...
bucchero

bucchero  

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Archaeology
[Ar]A type of fine grey‐coloured Etruscan pottery with a dark grey shiny surface produced between the 8th and 4th centuries bc.
Caere

Caere  

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(Gk. Agylla; Etr. χai[s]re; mod. Cerveteri), 48km. (30 mi.) north of Rome near the Tyrrhenian coast, was one of the oldest (Virgil Aeneid 8.479f.) and wealthiest of the twelve cities ...
canal

canal  

Darius I completed the canal begun by Necho (see saïtes) to connect the Pelusiac branch of the Nile above (south of) Bubastis to the Red Sea. Ptolemy II built a longer canal, from the still undivided ...
Carrara

Carrara  

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A town in Tuscany in NW Italy, famous for the white marble quarried there since Roman times.
Carthage

Carthage  

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An ancient city on the coast of North Africa near present-day Tunis. Founded by the Phoenicians c.814 bc, Carthage became a major force in the Mediterranean, and came into conflict with Rome in the ...
Claudius

Claudius  

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(10 bc–54 ad)Roman emperor (41–54 ad). He spent his early life engaged in historical study, prevented from entering public life by his physical infirmity; he was proclaimed emperor after the murder ...
convīvium

convīvium  

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The Roman convivium was modelled on the Etruscan version of the Greek symposium. These Italian feasts differed from their Greek prototypes in four important respects: citizen women were present; ...
Corsica

Corsica  

The Mediterranean island of Corsica, which lies 12 kilometres (7 miles) north of Sardinia, is now a département of France, but has at various points in its medieval and modern ...

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