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Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Richelieu  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1585–1642), French theologian and politician. He was created a cardinal in 1622; he became President of the Council of Ministers in 1624 and from 1629 he was chief minister of France. Seeking to ...
Estates-general

Estates-general   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,365 words

From the thirteenth century on, the three orders of European society came to be represented in what in France, and

États Généraux

États Généraux   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
126 words

The assembly of the representatives of the three orders, or estates, of the realm: namely, the clergy, the nobility

French Revolution

French Revolution  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1789)The political upheaval that ended with the overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy in France and marked a watershed in European history. Various groups in French society opposed the ancien régime ...
Gabriel Bonnot de Mably

Gabriel Bonnot de Mably  

1709–1785, French historian, moralist, and political writer. Mably's works exerted a wide influence on political thought in eighteenth-century France, but little is known about his life. He was born ...
Guillaume Raynal, abbé

Guillaume Raynal, abbé  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1713–96),French author, usually called Abbé Raynal because as a young man he received orders as a Jesuit. He is best known as the author of L'Histoire philosophique et politique ...
Henri Grégoire

Henri Grégoire  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1750–1831), French priest, revolutionary, abolitionist, and scholar. Born in Lorraine, Grégoire was ordained as a priest in 1775. He earned his earliest acclaim in the world of letters by winning ...
Jacobin

Jacobin  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Originally a name of the French friars of the order of St Dominic, so called because the church of St Jacques in Paris was given to them and they built their first convent nearby. From them the name ...
Jacques Necker

Jacques Necker  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1732–1804)Swiss-born banker. He began work as a bank clerk in Switzerland, moving to his firm's headquarters in Paris in 1750. He rose to hold the office of director-general of French finances on ...
Le Tiers État

Le Tiers État  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
The third of the three orders or estates that the society of the ancien régime was divided into, the first two being the clergy and the nobility. It therefore included ...
Louis XVI

Louis XVI  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1754–93)The last King of France (1774–92) before the French Revolution. Weak and vacillating, unwisely advised by his Austrian wife, Marie Antoinette, he could neither avert the Revolution by ...
Marquis d'Argenson

Marquis d'Argenson  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1694–1757).1 French political theorist and author of a valuable Journal. The son and brother of ministers, Minister of Foreign Affairs himself in 1744–7, and a friend of Voltaire, he ...
Marquis de Lafayette

Marquis de Lafayette  

(1757–1834) soldier and statesman, born in Chavaniac, France. Lafayette was a major general in the Continental army and fought at Brandywine (1777); led an abortive expedition to invade Canada; and ...
National Assembly

National Assembly  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
The revolutionary assembly formed by members of the Third Estate on 17 June 1789 when they failed to gain the support of the whole of the French States-General. Three days later the members signed ...
Pamphlets

Pamphlets  

Reference type:
Overview Page
One or more printed sheets, stabbed or sewn together, containing a single essay, treatise, exposition, or other matter too short to make a book. From Lat. Pamphilus, the title of ...
Philip IV

Philip IV  

(1268–1314)King of France (1285–1314). He inherited the throne from his father and strengthened royal control over the nobility as well as improving the law. Pope Boniface VIII resisted his claim to ...
States‐General

States‐General   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
40 words

National assembly composed of separate divisions, or ‘estates’, each historically representing a different social class. In France, the Assembly divided

Talleyrand

Talleyrand  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1754–1838)French statesman. Foreign Minister under the Directory from 1797, he was involved in the coup that brought Napoleon to power, and held the same position under the new leader (1799–1807); ...
Tennis Court Oath

Tennis Court Oath  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A dramatic incident that took place at Versailles in the first stage of the French Revolution. On 17 June 1789 the Third Estate of the States‐General under the presidency of Jean Bailly, a ...

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