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Max Ernst

(1891—1976) German artist

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Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism  

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The dominant movement in American painting in the late 1940s and 1950s, characterized by a desire to convey powerful emotions through the sensuous qualities of paint, often on canvases of huge size. ...
August Macke

August Macke  

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(b Meschede, Westphalia, 3 Jan. 1887; d nr. Perthes-les-Hurlus, Champagne, 26 Sept. 1914).German Expressionist painter. His training included a period studying with Corinth in Berlin. Between 1907 ...
automatism

automatism  

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A method of painting or drawing in which conscious control is suppressed, allowing the subconscious to take over. André Breton wrote in the Surrealist manifesto of 1924 of ‘pure psychic automatism’, ...
Boris Margo

Boris Margo  

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(1902–95).Painter, printmaker, and sculptor. Associated with a theatrical form of surrealism during the 1930s, he later contributed to abstract expressionism. Born in Volochisk, Russia (now Ukraine), ...
Charles Seliger

Charles Seliger  

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(1926–2009).Painter, printmaker, and draftsman. Born Charles Marvin Zekowski in New York, as a teenager he adopted as his surname his mother's maiden name. During his early years, he developed and ...
collage

collage  

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(Fr., coller: ‘to gum’).A term applied to a type of picture (and also to the technique used in creating such pictures) in which photographs, news cuttings, and other suitable objects are pasted on to ...
dada

dada  

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An early 20th-century international movement in art, literature, music, and film, repudiating and mocking artistic and social conventions and emphasizing the illogical and absurd. Dada was launched ...
David Hare

David Hare  

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(1917–92).Sculptor, photographer, painter, and occasional printmaker. Known primarily for surrealist-oriented, mostly metal sculpture combining abstract and representational elements, his work ...
decalcomania

decalcomania  

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A method of decoration using cut-up paper sheets of printed designs, which are then applied to a surface, such as glass. The technique was popular during the Victorian period for decorating glass ...
degenerate art

degenerate art  

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A term coined in Germany in the 1930s to discredit all contemporary art that did not correspond to the ideology of the Nazi party. Such art, which included most avant-garde work, was systematically ...
Dorothea Tanning

Dorothea Tanning  

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(1910–2012).Painter, sculptor, and printmaker. Also a writer. With almost no formal training in art, she made a place for herself among the surrealists who congregated in New York during the early ...
E. L. T. Mesens

E. L. T. Mesens  

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(b Brussels, 27 Nov. 1903; d Brussels, 13 May 1971).Belgian musician, poet, collagist, exhibition organizer, and dealer. His interest in the visual arts developed under the influence of Duchamp ...
Fernand Léger

Fernand Léger  

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(1881–1955)French painter, who was one of the leading cubists.The son of a prosperous Normandy farmer, Léger arrived in Paris in 1900 having served an apprenticeship to an architect in Caen. In Paris ...
Frederick Sommer

Frederick Sommer  

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(1905–99).Photographer and painter. His understated but disquieting photographs often treat decay, disintegration, and desolation. Among his most original works, horizonless desert landscapes are ...
frottage

frottage  

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(French: ‘rubbing’).A technique of creating an image by placing a piece of paper over some rough surface such as grained wood or sacking and rubbing the paper with a crayon or pencil until it ...
Funk art

Funk art  

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Term applied to a type of art that originated in California (specifically the San Francisco area) around 1960 in which tatty or sick subjects—often pornographic or scatological—are treated in a ...
Hans Arp

Hans Arp  

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Literature
(Strasburg, 1887–1966, Basel),also Jean Arp, was a painter and graphic artist, a sculptor in stone and wood, and a poet who wrote French as well as German poetry. He ...
Hans Bellmer

Hans Bellmer  

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(b Kattowitz, Germany [now Katowice, Poland], 13 Mar. 1902; d Paris, 24 Feb. 1975).Polish-French graphic artist, painter, sculptor, photographer, and writer, all of whose work is explicitly erotic. ...
Hans Richter

Hans Richter  

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(1888–1976).Painter, sculptor, and filmmaker. His interest in sequential transformation of abstract designs led to the creation of what was probably the first abstract film. Born in Berlin, he ...
Hartford, Wadsworth Atheneum

Hartford, Wadsworth Atheneum  

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In 1841 Daniel Wadsworth, a local patron of the arts, first proposed establishing an art museum for the city of Hartford, Connecticut. The funds were raised by subscription, and on ...

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