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animal spirits

animal spirits  

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Overview Page
The term used by John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946) to convey the idea that major investment projects are usually undertaken not on the basis of careful calculation of the profits they are expected to ...
Black Abolitionists

Black Abolitionists  

Historians acknowledge the existence of “two abolitionisms” in the antebellum United States—one black, one white. Although black and white abolitionists shared similar views about the moral evil of ...
Black Press

Black Press  

The oppressed black communities of the antebellum North produced a variety of published materials. Benjamin Banneker's almanac was one of the earliest black periodicals. In the years preceding the ...
Black Uplift

Black Uplift  

African American activists in the antebellum and post–Civil War eras invoked a language and political strategy of black uplift or elevation. Composed of ideas and actions about physical, mental, or ...
Blanche Kelso Bruce

Blanche Kelso Bruce  

(b. 1 March 1841; d. 17 March 1898), the first black senatorfrom Mississippi. Blanche Kelso Bruce, the son of a black mother and white planter father, was born into ...
bourgeoisie

bourgeoisie  

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The commercial class that emerged during the feudal era and that became the principal protagonist of the transition to capitalism and democratic rule. The bourgeoisie began primarily as merchants but ...
capitalism

capitalism  

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An economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and individual owners of capital are free to make use of it as they see fit; in particular, for their own profit. In this ...
Christian Recorder

Christian Recorder  

The Christian Recorder, which began publication in Philadelphia in July 1852, was not the first African American newspaper; nevertheless, it was an important milestone in the history of black ...
class

class  

Is about power. The concept of social class has been used by historians to understand the experience, social relationships, and social conflicts of past and present. By the 1960s, historians had ...
cost minimization

cost minimization  

The behavioural assumption that an individual or firm will seek to purchase a given amount of goods or inputs at the least cost, other things being equal. By making certain assumptions, there will ...
demographics

demographics  

Statistics that describe the characteristics of a population, such as age, sex, race, family size, income, and location of residence.
economic growth

economic growth  

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The expansion of the output of an economy, usually expressed in terms of the increase of national income. Nations experience different rates of economic growth mainly because of differences in ...
Economic Life

Economic Life  

Work has always characterized African American life in the Americas. From the first arrivals in the 1610s blacks came or were brought to the New World to labor. During the ...
Elleanor Eldridge

Elleanor Eldridge  

(27 March 1784; d. 1845?), a skilled businesswoman and amateur lawyer who labored industriously to become respected in the black community.She excelled in her crafts and business ventures, and ...
enterprise society

enterprise society  

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A label commonly applied to those countries in which the state makes a conscious attempt to promote the qualities of self-reliance, innovation, and individual achievement. During the 1980s, for ...
Exoduster Movement

Exoduster Movement  

With the return of the Democratic Party to power in the South following Reconstruction, African Americans watched their rights as citizens steadily disappear. Thousands of freed slaves dealt with the ...
Free Black Women in the Antebellum North

Free Black Women in the Antebellum North  

By the 1830s, black women had become a significant part of the migration stream to northern cities. In forging this new path to freedom, black women were being dislocated by ...
Freedman's Savings and Trust Company

Freedman's Savings and Trust Company  

The Freedman's Savings and Trust Company, commonly known as the Freedman's Bank, was chartered by Congress in March 1865 to be a repository for the personal savings of freed slaves. ...
freedmen

freedmen  

 Emancipated slaves were more prominent in Roman society than in Greek city‐states or Hellenistic kingdoms (see slavery). Lat. lībertus/a designates the ex‐slave in relation to former owner ...
George B. Vashon

George B. Vashon  

(1824–1878), essayist and poet.George Boyer Vashon was the first African American to graduate from Oberlin College and the first to become a lawyer in New York State. Born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, ...

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