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agricultural labourers

agricultural labourers  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The distinction between a farm labourer and a farm servant was that a servant was hired on a yearly basis from about the age of 14 and lived on the ...
Australia

Australia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchyAustralia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest island—is dominated by a ...
Caledonian societies

Caledonian societies  

Are gatherings of Scottish emigrants and exiles which act as the focus for the perpetuation and the celebration of specific aspects of Scottish national character. The most notable Caledonian society ...
Catholicism

Catholicism  

The word derives from the universality of faith in the Christian church, but since the 16th cent. has referred to the portion of Christianity accepting papal authority. It delineates the distinctive ...
census returns

census returns  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The first census for the whole of Britain, except Ireland, was taken in 1801, but no central archival material survives from that exercise or from the following censuses of 1811, 1821, and 1831.[...]
central Europe

central Europe  

Cannot be sharply delimited on a map. Although it is situated on the east-west axis of the continent—the adjective “central” here signifies an in-between (as in Central America) rather than ...
Clearances of the Highlands and Islands

Clearances of the Highlands and Islands  

The Highland Clearances are one of the most evocative and symbolic but least understood episodes of Scottish history. The evocation and symbolism have perhaps contributed to the lack of perspective ...
exile

exile  

Reference type:
Overview Page
GreekExile (phygē, lit. ‘flight’) is permanent or long‐term removal from one's native place, usually as a punishment imposed by government or other superior power. In Greece it was from earliest ...
Gaelic

Gaelic  

One of the Celtic dialects, is of the group known as the Goidelic, comprising Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx. Scottish Gaelic and Manx developed through the migrations of Irish speakers in the late ...
Gaelic literature

Gaelic literature  

The monasteries of the Celtic church (see church institutions: 1) had a major role to play in the production of Gaelic literature until they went into decline in the 12th ...
Germany, the Baltic, and Poland

Germany, the Baltic, and Poland  

1. to 1600;2. since 1600.1. to 1600;2. since 1600.The Baltic region—known to the Scots as Eastland—became increasingly important to Scottish trade from the late 13th century when north ...
hiring fairs

hiring fairs  

Were a source of farm labour. The hiring of farm servants was widespread in Ireland by the early 18th century (see agricultural labourers). However hiring fairs, at which farmers and ...
immigration

immigration  

In genetics, the movement or flow of genes into a population, caused by immigrating individuals which interbreed with the residents. This is the usual source of new variation in a population, ...
Irish diaspora

Irish diaspora  

Diaspora is a concept that during the 1990s became fashionable in world history and in the specific Irish context as well. Indications of each of these phenomena are: that in ...
Italian Writers in Australia

Italian Writers in Australia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Until relatively recently, writing in Italian about Australia was sparse and not especially literary. The Spanish missionary Rudesindo Salvado wrote some engaging Memorie storiche (1851) of his ...
Italian Writers in the United States

Italian Writers in the United States  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Writing in Italian in the USA began with the waves of immigrants of the late 19th c. and was conditioned by the status and culture of its practitioners until at ...
land agitation and reform in the Highlands and Islands

land agitation and reform in the Highlands and Islands  

There has been an assumption that the great changes which swept Highland society in the 19th century were greeted with a tame response by those affected by them. Closer analysis ...
landownership in the Highlands and Islands

landownership in the Highlands and Islands  

Has been a major influence in the social, economic, and political development of the region, with the changing nature and pattern of ownership in the 18th and 19th centuries having ...
Latin America

Latin America  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
1. Diversity of traditionsLatin America, with a population of over 340 million, stretches from Mexico and Cuba south to Cape Horn. In general, Latin American music can be said ...
living standards

living standards  

1. to 1700;2. 1700–1800;3. 1800 onwards;4. the old and new Poor Laws;5. housing: 1770s onwards.1. to 1700;2. 1700–1800;3. 1800 onwards;4. the old and new Poor Laws;5. housing: 1770s onwards.[...]

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