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agricultural labourers

agricultural labourers  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The distinction between a farm labourer and a farm servant was that a servant was hired on a yearly basis from about the age of 14 and lived on the ...
Australia

Australia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchyAustralia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest island—is dominated by a ...
Caledonian societies

Caledonian societies  

Are gatherings of Scottish emigrants and exiles which act as the focus for the perpetuation and the celebration of specific aspects of Scottish national character. The most notable Caledonian society ...
Catholicism

Catholicism  

The word derives from the universality of faith in the Christian church, but since the 16th cent. has referred to the portion of Christianity accepting papal authority. It delineates the distinctive ...
census returns

census returns  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The first census for the whole of Britain, except Ireland, was taken in 1801, but no central archival material survives from that exercise or from the following censuses of 1811, 1821, and 1831.[...]
central Europe

central Europe  

Cannot be sharply delimited on a map. Although it is situated on the east-west axis of the continent—the adjective “central” here signifies an in-between (as in Central America) rather than ...
Clearances of the Highlands and Islands

Clearances of the Highlands and Islands  

The Highland Clearances are one of the most evocative and symbolic but least understood episodes of Scottish history. The evocation and symbolism have perhaps contributed to the lack of perspective ...
emigration

emigration   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,324 words

Emigration

Emigration   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
704 words

Until the mid-19th c. the great majority of Italians lived their lives where they were born. Medieval Italian merchants and

emigration

emigration   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
639 words

as a concept in Irish historical writing and social criticism has a set of connotations and contextual limitations different from

emigration

emigration   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
577 words
from the British Isles increased dramatically during the 19th century. Between 1837 and 1867 more than three million people from Great Britain and some two million from Ireland emigrated, ... More
emigration

emigration   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
853 words
Small numbers of people left the British Isles to settle in the Low Countries and other parts of the Continent during the Middle Ages and later, but it was not until the early 17th century ... More
exile

exile  

Reference type:
Overview Page
GreekExile (phygē, lit. ‘flight’) is permanent or long‐term removal from one's native place, usually as a punishment imposed by government or other superior power. In Greece it was from earliest ...
Gaelic

Gaelic  

One of the Celtic dialects, is of the group known as the Goidelic, comprising Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx. Scottish Gaelic and Manx developed through the migrations of Irish speakers in the late ...
Gaelic literature

Gaelic literature  

The monasteries of the Celtic church (see church institutions: 1) had a major role to play in the production of Gaelic literature until they went into decline in the 12th ...
Germany, the Baltic, and Poland

Germany, the Baltic, and Poland  

1. to 1600;2. since 1600.1. to 1600;2. since 1600.The Baltic region—known to the Scots as Eastland—became increasingly important to Scottish trade from the late 13th century when north ...
hiring fairs

hiring fairs  

Were a source of farm labour. The hiring of farm servants was widespread in Ireland by the early 18th century (see agricultural labourers). However hiring fairs, at which farmers and ...
immigration

immigration  

In genetics, the movement or flow of genes into a population, caused by immigrating individuals which interbreed with the residents. This is the usual source of new variation in a population, ...
Irish diaspora

Irish diaspora  

Diaspora is a concept that during the 1990s became fashionable in world history and in the specific Irish context as well. Indications of each of these phenomena are: that in ...
Italian Writers in Australia

Italian Writers in Australia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Until relatively recently, writing in Italian about Australia was sparse and not especially literary. The Spanish missionary Rudesindo Salvado wrote some engaging Memorie storiche (1851) of his ...

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