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1968

1968  

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Overview Page
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Literature
Was the year of protest par excellence. As in 1848, social revolt spread through the peninsula while also taking place in other countries, as movements from below challenged centres of ...
Abu Khaldun Sati al- Husri

Abu Khaldun Sati al- Husri  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(d. 1968)Ottoman ideologist, educational reformer, secular Arab nationalist, and pan-Arabist. Saw secular educational reform as a means of instilling patriotism in youth. Developed a theory of Arab ...
Academic Freedom.

Academic Freedom.  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The American tradition of academic freedom drew inspiration from the German concept of Lehrfreiheit, the statutory rights of professors in state universities to teach and do research freely. ...
Académie

Académie  

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Overview Page
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Literature
Is a word with several different meanings in French cultural history. In the world of education it has designated since the time of Napoleon the 16 regional divisions (each with ...
Académie des Sciences

Académie des Sciences  

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Overview Page
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Literature
Learned body set up by Colbert in 1666 on the basis of previously existing informal meetings of scientists in circles such as those of Mersenne and the Dupuy brothers. It ...
academies, Service

academies, Service  

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Overview Page
OverviewU.S. Military AcademyU.S. Naval AcademyU.S. Air Force AcademyU.S. Coast Guard AcademyOverviewU.S. Military AcademyU.S. Naval AcademyU.S. Air Force AcademyU.S. Coast Guard AcademyThe primary ...
Accommodationism

Accommodationism  

As African Americans fought racial prejudice in the United States following the Civil War, some black leaders proposed a strategy of accommodation. The idea of accommodation called for African ...
Acquaviva D'aragona

Acquaviva D'aragona  

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Literature
One of the most powerful baronial families in Naples. Andrea Matteo (1458–1529), Duke of Atri, and Belisario (1464–1528), Duke of Nardo, were warlords and writers (tutored by Pontano) who played ...
Adelard of Bath

Adelard of Bath  

(c.1070–c.1145)English Benedictine remembered as a conduit for the introduction of Arabic astronomy and philosophy to the West.
Agostino Dati

Agostino Dati  

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Overview Page
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Literature
(1420–78).After a humanist education, he worked as a teacher, opening a school of rhetoric in Siena, and becoming the official orator of the Republic. He was a prolific writer on philosophical, ...
Agrégation

Agrégation  

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Overview Page
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Literature
The agrégation originated in 1766, but took its modern form under Napoleon as a competitive examination for teaching posts. In law and medicine it remained a qualification for faculty teaching. ...
Agricultural Education and Extension.

Agricultural Education and Extension.  

The system of agricultural education and extension consists of the land-grant colleges with their associated agricultural experiment stations and cooperative extension services, and secondary schools ...
Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry  

From 1740 to 1850, the organization and efficiency of much of western European agriculture were transformed. Sometimes called an agricultural revolution, this process was prior to or concomitant with ...
Aḥmad Kuftaro

Aḥmad Kuftaro  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The Syrian religious scholar Aḥmad Kuftaro was born in Damascus between 1911and 1915. Most sources suggest either 1912 or 1915. He died September 1, 2004. Kuftaro belonged to a family ...
Ailred of Rievaulx

Ailred of Rievaulx  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(1110–67),known as the ‘St Bernard of the North’, was the leading figure in the Cistercian order in England in the mid‐12th cent. The son of a priest of Hexham (Northd.), he entered the abbey of ...
al- Azhar

al- Azhar  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Founded in 969/970, this Cairene university may have been named for the prophet Muhammad's daughter Fatimah “al-Zahra” (the brilliant), the eponymous ancestor of the Fatimids, founder of Cairo. ...
Alabama State University

Alabama State University  

Like most historically black colleges and universities in the United States, Alabama State University was created in the wake of the Civil War. In 1865, a convalescing Union soldier from ...
Alexander Crummell

Alexander Crummell  

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Overview Page
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Literature
(1819–98),black minister of the Episcopal Church in his native U.S., after education at Cambridge and long residence in Liberia. His works include The Future of Africa (1862) and Africa and America ...
Alonso de Cartagena

Alonso de Cartagena  

(1385/6–1456) Son of Pablo de Santa María, chief rabbi then bishop of Burgos following his conversion in 1390.Following an illustrious diplomatic career, Alonso inherited the bishopric on Pablo’s ...
Amalfi

Amalfi  

A small Italian city in Campania, clinging to the rocky slopes of its peninsula dominating the bay of Salerno, Amalfi is mentioned as a bishopric in a letter of Pope ...

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