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Alexander Feodorovich Kerensky

Alexander Feodorovich Kerensky  

(1881–1970)Russian revolutionary. He was a representative of the moderate Labour Party in the Fourth Duma (1912) and joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party during the Russian Revolution. After the ...
Lev Borisovich Kamenev

Lev Borisovich Kamenev  

(22 July 1883, d. 25 Aug. 1936).Soviet politicianBorn Lev Borisovich Rosenfeld in Moscow, he was forced to abandon his law degree at Moscow University in 1902 owing to his political activities. He ...
Mensheviks

Mensheviks  

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The term for the faction of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party which derived its name from the 1903 party congress, when it lost a vote to the Bolsheviks (‘the majority’) over the editorial ...
Nicholas II

Nicholas II  

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(b. 18 May 1868, d. 16 July 1918).Tsar of Russia 1894–1918The son of Alexander III, he was determined to defend his autocratic rule despite the growth of an articulate, political opposition. His ...
October Putsch

October Putsch  

(Sept.–Oct. 1993)A stand‐off between the popularly elected Russian President, Yeltsin, and the Congress of People's Deputies, whose members had been selected out of a pool of Communist candidates. In ...
Piort Arkadevich Stolypin

Piort Arkadevich Stolypin  

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(1862–1911)Russian statesman. The last effective statesman of the Russian empire, he was Premier (1906–11). He was hated for his ruthless punishment of activists in the Russian Revolution of 1905, ...
Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution  

(1905)A conflict in Russia between the government of Nicholas II and industrial workers, peasants, and armed forces. Heavy taxation had brought mounting distress to the poor, and Russia's defeat in ...
Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution  

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(1917)The overthrow of the government of Nicholas II in Russia and its replacement by Bolshevik rule under the leadership of Lenin. It was completed in two stages – a liberal (Menshevik) revolution ...
Sergei Yulevich Witte

Sergei Yulevich Witte  

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(b. Tiflis, 17 June 1849, d. St Petersburg 13 Mar. 1915)Russian; Russian Minister of Transport and of Finance 1892–1903, Prime Minister 1903–6 Witte was brought up in Tiflis, his father being of ...
soviet

soviet  

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(Russian, “council”) An elected governing council in the former Soviet Union. Russian Soviets gained their revolutionary connotation in 1905, when the St Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Deputies was ...

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