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Adalbero of Laon

Adalbero of Laon  

(c.947–1030)Politically active bishop of Laon (r. 977–1030). Adalbero is notorious for betraying Charles of Lorraine, the last Carolingian claimant to the throne, whom he turned over to Hugh Capet ...
Alcuin

Alcuin  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(c. 735–804)English scholar and theologian. In 782 was employed by Emperor Charlemagne as head of his palace school at Aachen, where his pupils included many of the outstanding figures in the ...
Alexandre Kojève

Alexandre Kojève  

(1902–68)Russian-born French philosopher and political theorist. The nephew of the great Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, Kojève had a privileged upbringing in pre-revolutionary Russia. In 1918 he ...
Amalric

Amalric  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. c.1207), scholastic philosopher. He taught at Paris. He maintained that God was the one essence underlying all created beings and that those who remain in the love of God cannot sin. His theses ...
André Breton

André Breton  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1896–1966)French poet.Breton was born in Tinchebray, Orne. His early involvement with the dadaists revealed itself in such works as Mont de piété (1919); in the same year he co-founded the ...
antithesis

antithesis  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A figure of speech in which sharply contrasted ideas are juxtaposed in a balanced or parallel phrase or grammatical structure, as in ‘Hee for God only, shee for God in him’ (Milton).
argument

argument  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
To argue is to produce considerations designed to support a conclusion. An argument is either the process of doing this (in which sense an argument may be heated or protracted) or the product, i.e. ...
Bec

Bec  

(abbey) Founded in central Normandy in 1034 by the knight Herluin, Bec, despite its initial obscurity, soon gained a reputation for piety and learning, producing two notable ecclesiastics: Lanfranc ...
Berengar of Tours

Berengar of Tours  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(c.1010–88)Theologian involved in the 11th-century Eucharistic controversy. Berengar appealed to reason instead of authority, leading him to question teachings concerning the Real Presence. He was ...
Carneades

Carneades  

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(c.214–129 bc)The most prominent member of the later Academy after Arcesilaus. Carneades was a distinguished sceptic, famous (especially through the report by Cicero) for impressive speeches at Rome ...
casuistry

casuistry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
n.1. an approach to ethical analysis that is based on cases as distinct from principle-dependent or rule-based methods of evaluating moral problems. 2. an excessively subtle or opaque form of ...
Charles the Bald

Charles the Bald  

[Na]Frankish leader, born ad 823, youngest son of Louis the Pious. King of the West Franks who outlived his brothers and many of their heirs to become emperor in ad 875. He died in ad 877.
Classical rhetoric

Classical rhetoric  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
Historically defined, is the total record—many thousands of printed pages—of Greek and Roman rhetorical teaching and practice from the time of the Homeric and Hesiodic epics to that of the ...
commonplace book

commonplace book  

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Overview Page
A book into which notable extracts from other works are copied for personal use.
communication

communication  

The result of any action (physical, written, or verbal) that conveys meanings between two individuals. In the context of marketing, the marketer wants the communication, in the form of a promotional ...
Contingency and Probability

Contingency and Probability  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
For Aristotle (384–322 bce), the contingent is the unproblematic scene of rhetoric. This Aristotelian connection between the scene and agency (or practice), originally put into play to blunt Plato's ...
contradiction

contradiction  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[Ge]A term used by Karl Marx to refer to mutually antagonistic tendencies in a society.
Conviction

Conviction  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
At the end of World War II, two scholars of argument, Chaim Perelman and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca, began collaborating on a project to study and theorize about the forms of argument ...
Copia

Copia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
Means “abundance,” and all its connotations are with wealth, variety, fertility. It recurs frequently in the writings of ancient rhetoricians, not as a strict technical term, but as a way ...
Delivery

Delivery  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
The fifth of the five classical canons (Gk. erga; Lat. officia) of rhetoric, offers instruction in bodily gesture, including manipulations of voice, breath, and rhythm, to help the orator communicate ...

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