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Ahl al-Kitab

Ahl al-Kitab  

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Religion
Quranic term referring to Jews, Christians, and Sabaeans as possessors of books previously revealed by God. Sometimes applied to Zoroastrians, Magians, and Samaritans. The books associated with Jews ...
Christianity and Islam

Christianity and Islam  

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Religion
The early Islamic empire included Christians in its bureaucracies; the first language of the Umayyad administration was Greek. Early relations were good, though there is evidence of discontent ...
conversion

conversion  

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Religion
The term implies rejection of one way of life for another, generally better, after brief and intense insight into the shortcomings of self or the demands of circumstance. Ancient religious cult did ...
Copts

Copts  

A native Egyptian in the Hellenistic and Roman periods; a member of the Coptic Church. Coptic, the language of the Copts, represents the final stage of ancient Egyptian. It now survives only as the ...
Córdoba

Córdoba  

A city in Andalusia, southern Spain. Founded by the Carthaginians, it was under Moorish rule from 711 to 1236, and as capital of the most powerful of the Arab states in Spain, it was a centre of ...
Eulogio of Cordova

Eulogio of Cordova  

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Religion
(c.800–859)Eulogio was born at Cordova early in the 9th c., a difficult time for the Christian community of the south Iberian peninsula. In exchange for the payment of a ...
Jizyah

Jizyah  

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Religion
(Arab., jazā, ‘reward, requite’).The poll tax levied on non-Muslims in Muslim countries, based on e.g. Qurʾān 9. 29. In return for jizya, the Muslim state has an obligation to protect those who pay ...
Judaism

Judaism  

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Religion
The monotheistic religion of the Jews. For its origins Judaism looks to the biblical covenant made by God with Abraham, and to the laws revealed to Moses and recorded in the Torah (supplemented by ...
Millet

Millet  

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Religion
Religious community. From Arabic millah, “religion” or “religious community.” Used by the Ottomans (1517–1922) to refer to self-governing non-Muslim religious communities. Under policy established by ...
Minorities

Minorities  

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Religion
More than a third of the world's 1.2 billion Muslims live as political and religious minorities. Early Islamic history yields two models for Muslim minorities to follow: the Meccan model, where ...
Muhammad

Muhammad  

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Religion
(c. 570–632),Arab prophet and founder of Islam. He was born in Mecca, where c.610 he received the first of a series of revelations which, as the Koran, became the doctrinal and legislative basis of ...
Muslim-Christian Dialogue

Muslim-Christian Dialogue  

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Religion
Intentional, structured encounters between Muslims and Christians in which two or more parties express their views and listen respectfully to their counterparts. The dialogue movement began during ...
Pahlavi

Pahlavi  

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Religion
An Aramaic-based writing system used in Persia from the 2nd century bc to the advent of Islam in the 7th century ad. It was also used for the recording of ancient Avestan sacred texts.
People of the Book

People of the Book  

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Religion
Qurʿānic in origin, the term ahl al-kitāb refers mainly to Jews, Christians, and (less frequently) the Sabaeans as possessors of previous revealed books. It was sometimes applied to other ...
pluralism

pluralism  

[Th]Diversity in interpretation. Because the world cannot be reduced to a series of simple conceptual categories there will always be a range of approaches, understandings, and interpretations. In ...
polemic

polemic  

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Religion
[pŏ-lemm-ik]A thorough written attack on some opinion or policy, usually within a theological or political dispute, sometimes also in philosophy or criticism. Notable polemicists in English are John ...
Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism  

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Religion
Iranian religion derived from the teachings of Zoroaster (Zarathustra) (probably early-second millennium bc), which still has devotees (e.g. the Parsees of India). The most important architectural ...

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