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age

age  

The duration of time a person has lived. Age is conventionally defined from the time of birth, which counts as zero, and is measured in completed years of life. For some purposes, age is measured ...
anomie

anomie  

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The state of a person or group of people who lack any ethical or social guidance to regulate their behaviour. Lawlessness.
conformity

conformity  

A tendency of individual members of a group to behave in a manner that agrees with the norms of the group. Groups have norms which members are expected to abide by in order to maintain the integrity ...
constructionism

constructionism  

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Media studies
A philosophical (specifically epistemological) stance in phenomenological sociology in which social realities are seen as the product of sociohistorically situated practices rather than objective ...
crime

crime  

Crime doesn't pay a US slogan particularly associated with the 1930s radio crime series The Shadow, in which it was spoken by The Shadow at the end of each broadcast, and with the cartoon detective ...
criminology

criminology  

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Law
N.The study of crime. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field that combines aspects of legal theory and the substantive legal disciplines with approaches based on psychology, sociology, and moral ...
deprivation

deprivation  

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Loss; lacking in desired objects or aims. Within the less developed countries deprivation can be acute: water, housing, or food may be lacking. Within the developed world basic provisions may be ...
deviance

deviance   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

Any social behaviour that departs from that regarded as ‘normal’ or socially accepted within a society or social context.

deviance amplification

deviance amplification  

Introduced by Leslie Wilkins in his book Social Deviance (1967), the concept suggests that a small initial deviation may spiral into ever-increasing significance through processes of labelling and ...
deviant

deviant  

A person whose behaviour departs from socially acceptable standards, especially in relation to sexual behaviour. See deviance (1), paraphilia. deviant adj.
differential association

differential association  

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A theory of crime and delinquency pioneered by Edwin Sutherland in the 1930s, as a response to the dominant multi-factorial approaches to crime causation, associated particularly with the work of ...
Erving Goffman

Erving Goffman  

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(1922–82)The most influential micro-sociologist during the 1960s and 1970s, Goffman pioneered the dramaturgical perspective for sociology. The influences on his work were many. After completing his ...
folk devils

folk devils  

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A concept widely used in the study of deviance, folk devils are social types that unite the negative qualities of which a society or group disapproves. They are used as ...
functionalism

functionalism  

[Th]An approach that explains social phenomena in terms of their integrative relationships and contributions to the maintenance of society, or to the needs of individuals, rather than in terms of ...
Howard Becker

Howard Becker  

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(1928– )From a student at the University of Chicago to one of the most well-respected sociology professors in the world, Howard Becker has made an enormous contribution to the symbolic interactionist ...
labelling theory

labelling theory  

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The hypothesis, which originated in sociology in the 1950s, that the social attribution of deviant identities to individuals or groups is a self-fulfilling prophecy leading to the amplification of ...
middle range theory

middle range theory  

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Archaeology
[De]A term developed in sociology by Robert K. Merton in the late 1940s as a way of connecting high‐level social theory with empirically observable patterns. Similarly, in archaeology, it has become ...
moral panic

moral panic  

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A mass movement based on the false or exaggerated perception that some cultural behaviour or group of people is dangerously deviant and poses a threat to society's values and interests. Moral panics ...
mores

mores  

Mores refer to moral rules or ways of behaving that most members of a society believe are essential for maintaining standards of decency. Mores are vigorously enforced and transgressions punished by ...
nature and nurture

nature and nurture  

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The combined effects of inherited factors (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) on the development of an organism. The genetic potential of an organism will only be realized under appropriate ...

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