Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

Overview

deduction

Return to overview »

You are looking at 1-14 of 14 entries

  • Type: Overview Page x
clear all

View:

abduction

abduction  

An inference process widely used in artificial intelligence, particularly in expert systems and rule-based systems. In diagnosis, for example, there may be a rule like “if measles then red spots” so ...
axiom

axiom  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A generally accepted and perhaps self-evident principle, maxim, or rule, based on empirical observations, logical analysis of evidence, or universal experience.
deductive reasoning

deductive reasoning  

Reasoning from the general to the particular, for example by developing a hypothesis based on theory and then testing it from an examination of facts. Also known as deduction. Compare inductive ...
entailment

entailment  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The relationship between a set of premises and a conclusion when the conclusion follows from the premises, or may validly be inferred from the premises. Many philosophers identify this with it being ...
geometry

geometry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The branch of mathematics concerned with the properties and relations of points, lines, surfaces, solids, and higher dimensional analogues; in the Middle Ages, one of the subjects of the quadrivium.
hypothesis

hypothesis  

A statement of the expected relationship between things being studied, which is intended to explain certain facts or observations. An idea to be tested.
induction

induction  

1 A form of reasoning, also called empirical induction, in which a general law or principle is inferred from particular instances that have been observed. Many people believe that this form of ...
inference

inference  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The process of moving from (possibly provisional) acceptance of some propositions, to acceptance of others. The goal of logic and of classical epistemology is to codify kinds of inference, and to ...
logic of discovery

logic of discovery  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The idea that there is any such thing as a ‘logic’ of scientific discovery has been a frequent object of attack, especially by philosophers of science influenced by Sir Karl Popper. There is usually ...
metalogic

metalogic  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
A theory whose subject-matter is a logistic system: see metamathematics.
natural deduction

natural deduction  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
A system of logic developed notably by Gerhard Gentzen, solely in terms of rules of inference. In the place of axioms there are only rules, saying what can be derived from any given assumption. ...
proof

proof  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
N.1 In the law of evidence, the means by which the existence or nonexistence of a fact is established to the satisfaction of the court, including testimony, documentary evidence, real evidence, and ...
reasoning

reasoning  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Any process of drawing a conclusion from a set of premises may be called a process of reasoning. If the conclusion concerns what to do, the process is called practical reasoning, otherwise pure or ...
weakening

weakening  

A rule of reasoning that implies that from a clause such as P⇒Q (where ⇒ should be interpreted as “implies” and P and Q are atoms) one can deduce both P∨R⇒Q and P⇒Q∨R (where ∨ signifies “or”). In ...

View: